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"THE NEW CEYLON." 



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\Ami 




"THE NEW CEYLON." 



BEING A SKETCH OF 



BEITISH NOETH BOENEO, OE SABAH. 



FROM OFFICIAL 
AND OTHER EXCLUSIVE SOURCES OF INFORMATION. 



WBITTEir AVD COUPILBD BT 

JOSEPH HATTON 

(aitihos op "to-day nr axsbxoa," btc. »ic.). 



SBitk £it\x> anb (Driflinal JRap^j a^ntdtJb to iate. 



LONDON: 

CHAPMAN AND HALL, LIMITED, 

11, HENRIETTA STEEET, COVBNT GARDEN. 

1881. 



C 



V !18S3 {ii 



• • • •• 



• ••• • •«• • 

• • • • • I • 
••••• •••• 

• • • • • • 



•• •• ••••» • 

• • • •• • ••• • • •• 



PREFACE. 



" Ant more for the Continental express ? '^ 

The electric lamps ''flashed into a sndden radiance** 
as the san is said to do at daybreak in the tropics. 

For a few minutes previously to the simultaneous 
leap of light that transformed a dozen opaque globes 
into mimic suns, Charing Cross railway station had 
been in semi-darkness. 

There was much bustle of departing travellers. 
Parliament was up ; for even the longest and most 
obstructed session comes to an end. Jaded legis- 
lators, men of fashion, ladies of society, were among 
the crowd bound for foreign shores. London was 
emptying itself from all its avenues of transit. 

" Any more for the Continental express ? ** shouted 
the platform inspector. 

A banging of doors, a shrill whistle, a last pressure 
of hands through carriage -windows, and the red 
lamps of the Express for a moment challenged the 
white sentinels of Blectra, only to leave the spectators 
gazing at the glistening track of steel along which 
it vanished into the outer darkness. 

They were no mere holiday travellers, the two 



VI PREFACE. 

young men whose latest adieux were made to me. 
Their guns were not to be loaded for sport on Scotch 
moors. They were pioneers bound for the Eastern 
seas. Adventurers had gone before, and smoothed 
the rugged way for the allied aid of science, which 
London and Edinburgh now contributed to North 
Borneo, the one a chemist, metallurgical and other- 
wise, the other a doctor of medicine. Ahead of them 
were a respected Governor, a staff of ofiScials and 
four years of diplomatic history, with a royal charter 
of her Gracious Majesty Queen Victoria to follow. 

It was, as I have already intimated, the autumn 
time of year, when the sadness of empty houses falls 
with strange impressiveness upon the West-End 
streets. The dull windows shed no illumination upon 
the languid traffic of the finished season. There is 
nothing more solemn than an empty house, more 
especially that which has been tenanted by your own 
family circle. Run up to town from your vacation 
retreat and note the pathetic dumbness of your 
" household gods.^^ It is an experience in sensations. 
And how terribly empty is a familiar room when the 
familiar friend has left it, not to return for years ! 

Such a room stands wide open near to the desk 
upon which I am writing. It contains a chest of 
empty pigeon-holes, each docketed with scientific 
titles; a nest of shelves crowded with the tran- 
sactions of learned Societies and technical works 
on mineralogy, metallurgy, and geology; a desk 
stained with many acids; a broken blowpipe; a 



PEEPACB. Vll 

pair of foils; a photograph of Professor Huxley; 
a kindly letter from Dr. Prankland; a cabinet of 
minerals in the rough ; a barometer ; and in one 
dark comer a package of miscellaneous books, papers, 
and manuscripts, relating to the sun-lands above which 
tower the sacred heights of Kina Balu. In that 
empty room (the relics of its former occupation of 
which are so eloquent to me, and may be to some 
of my readers) a student of the Eoyal School of 
Mines burnt the midnight oil. Recent investiga- 
tions into the influence of bacteria on gases and 
kindred subjects gained for him considerable dis- 
tinction at the Institute of Chemistry and the Chemical 
Society of London, and were recognised in the scientific 
organs of Germany and America. These labours may 
be said to have closed his student career. Endorsed by 
the best authorities, he was selected by the Governors 
of the new colony to explore its mineral resources. 

We had studied these books and papers together, 
he and I, and had thus been enabled to see, through 
the eyes of many travellers, those almost unknown 
lands of tropical splendour to which the pioneers 
have gone. Since then a further collection of private 
letters and explorers* reports have been lent to me — 
official documents, and letters of interesting expe- 
riences. It is believed by certain friends of mine that, 
with this exceptional material at my disposal, I may 
compile and write a book of practical value (a pioneer 
volume, let me call it) upon the new colony and the 
newest British charier. The Directors have given me 



VUl PEBFACE. 

access to their correspondence upon tlie subject. In 
addition to this epistolary history, I shall avail myself 
of the best-written sources of information that bear 
upon the plan and object of the work in hand, the 
intention of which is to set forth the position and 
prospects of the new colony, and to tell the story of the 
Bast India Company's nineteenth-century successor. 

While I sit before that pile of books and papers, 
from which the romantic story of the tropical island 
and its northern colony is to be extracted, the 
Continental express has transferred its travellers to 
foreign boat and train. Before I have analysed half 
of my collection of letterpress and manuscript, the 
former occupant of the empty room will have stood 
face to face with Nature in her most lovely and yet 
most strange and startling forms. Sabah has been 
described as an earthly paradise. The simile may 
hold good, from a British point of view, when the 
owners have built piers and roads and villages there 
on approved models ; when the planter is on the spot 
and the new colonist is sowing his rice; when the 
cooling breezes of Kina Balu waft the punkahs of hill 
residences, and the wild "gardens of the sun" are 
cultivated tracts of fruits and flowers. This time will 
no doubt come ; and then the pioneers may rest, and 
we will talk no more of empty rooms. 

JOSEPH HATTON. 
14, titchfield tsrrace, 

Begent's Pake, London, 
November, 1881. 



CONTENTS. 



I. 

A NEW COLONY BT BOTAL CHABTEK. 

Merchant Venturers, Past and Present — Queen Elizabeth and 
Qaeen Victoria — The British North Borneo Company — 
Treaties with the Saltans of Bmnei and Sooloo— Deolaring 
the New Enlers — ^Appointment of Besidents — Adminis- 
tering Justice — ^Trade Guarantees — The Smallest British 
Colony and the Newest Private Enterprise — Points for the 
Boyal Charter — Unexplored Territory — A New Era in the 
History of Colonisation — ^Presh Fields for the Tropical 
Planter 



n. 

LANDS 01 FEBFETUAL SUMMEB. 

The Island of Borneo— Sarawak and the Dutch Possessions- 
Interesting Statistics — Travellers* Tales — ^Native Women 
— Strange and barbarous Customs — ^Human Sacrifice — 
A previous Age of Civilisation and Prosperity — Mineral 
Treasures — Gold Mines — Famous Diamonds ..• ... 32 

A 2 



X CONTENTS. 

III. 

BRITISH NOBTH BORNEO OR SABAH. 

PAOB 

Geographical Situation — Harbours in which the British Fleet 
can ride at anchor — Mountains and Rivers — Village Life 
and Local Agriculture — Soils and Climate — Trade and 
Barter — Tropical Products — ^Anglo-Bornean Homes and 
Gardens — Fruits and Flowers — Crocodile Stories — Oppor- 
tunities of Sport — Elephants and Rhinoceros — Familiar 
and Curious Fish — The Sun-bird — Pearls and Pearl 
Fisheries— A Dramatic Story — The Natives— Cessation of 
Piracy 57 

IV. 

STRANGERS AMONG STRANGE PEOPLE. 

Recent Expeditions and Discoveries in Sabah — Forest and 
Stream — ^A Novel Mode of Travel — From Pappar to 
Konquot — Mr. Dobree on CofEee-planting — Hunting the 
Rhinoceros — Slavery — Mr. Witti*s Overland Journey from 
Marudu Bay to Pappar— Discovery of a New Oil — Dusun 
Girls in Danger — Sing^ar Toilettes — Native Weapons — 
Head -hunting — ^Buffaloes — The First White Men in Tam- 
buan — Notes on the Pappar River — Geographical Fables 
— Native Canards — Men and Women with Tails— English 
and other Maritime Powers in the Eastern Seas — ^Present 
and Future of the Indian Archipelago — European Capital 
and Chinese Labour 84 



A TRIP ON THE KINABATANOAN. 

Art and Travel — The Unknown — Tropical Scenery — A Hundred 
and fifty miles of River never previously visited by Euro- 
peans — Edible Birdsnest Farmers — Savagery — Tales of 
Blood and Plunder — English Influences — Floating Houses 
—Native Men and Women at Home — Open-air Bivouacs — 
Living Wonders of the Tropics — Gorgeous Birds and Butter- 
flies — Human Heads in Wrong Places— At Imbok — Natives 
in Splendid Attire — ^Wild Animals — Opportunities for Sport 
— The Kinabatangan of the Future — The Vanished Race 
and the Coming Labourer 127 



CONTENTS. XI 

VI. 

RIGHT ACROSS BORNEO. 

PAGB 

From Mamda Bay to Sandakan — Incideats and DiscoTeries en 
route— Bh&rkB and Crocodiles — Enormous Gatta Trees — 
Native Peonliarities — ^Tattooing and Head-hnnting — Omens 
— " Bad Birds " — Belies of Slavery — General Kindness and 
Hospitality of the Natives — ^Adventures Afloat and Ashore 
— Song and Dance — Capsized and in Danger — ^Native '^ 
Patience under DijBficulties — Hungry and Forlorn — ^Bescued 
—"All's Well that Ends Well" 148 

vn. 

THE PIONEERS AT WORK. 

Java and Borneo—" How to manage a Colony ** — Statistics of 
Progress — Wallace on the Dutch System — The Chinese in 
relation to North Borneo — A Suggestion for the Importa- 
tion of Labour from China — An Interesting Scheme — 
Building up a new Town — The Progress of Sandakan — 
The First Days of Elopura — Security and Confidence ... 171 

Appendix 189 



/ r 



^M > 




THE NEW CEYLOK 



.^ 



6 



5 



A NEW COLONY BY EOYAL CHAETER. 

Merchant YentnrerB, Past and Present — Queen Elizabeth and Qaeen 
Victoria — The British North Borneo Company — Treaties with 
the Sultans of Brnnei and Sooloo — ^Declaring the New Balers 
— Appointment of Besidents — ^Administering Justice — Trade 
Guarantees — The Smallest British Colony and the Newest 
Private Enterprise — Points for the Boyal Charter — Unexplored 
Territory — A New Era in the History of Colonisation — Fresh 
Fields for the Tropical Planter. 



I. 

A NEW flag has been added to the banners of the 
English Gailds. 

The latest charter signed by her Majesty Qaeen 
Victoria, while it links to-day with the splendid enter- 
prises that distinguished the reign of another great 
English queen, Elizabeth, demonstrates a higher sense 
of morality than that which influenced the trading 
expeditions of our first " merchant venturers/' 



2 THE NEW CEYLON. 

Jolin and Sebastian Cabot were representative of 
their day. They were empowered to plant the British 
flag in any city or island they could find during their 
warlike progresses round about the world. On these 
early lines England built up a great empire. It has been 
held together in this more civilised age by a policy of 
administration, the characteristic of which has been 
a liberal recognition of the rights of the conquered 
and a proper regard for the duties and responsibilities 
of the conqueror. It may indeed be fairly said that, 
during the present reign, by the civilising mission of 
education, roads, bridges, railways, encouragement of 
native trades and justice to native aspirations, England 
has redeemed the harshness that attached to some of 
her first transactions with the people whose territories 
she violently annexed, and whose liberties she violently 
controlled. 

The old days of warlike conquest are over for 
this country. England does not seek to extend 
her empire by fire and sword. Now and then, 
struggling peoples, petitioning to come within the 
pale of British protection, are permitted the privi- 
leges of our commonwealth of colonies and posses- 
sions ; but the approved policy of the age seems to be 
the maintenance of that which already belongs to us, 
and the promotion of its complete development. At 
the same time, looking for new markets for our 



A NEW COLONY BY EOYAL CHARTEE. 3 

trade, we are ready by international treaties and 
engagements to facilitate the freedom of our business 
operations, to increase the number of our mercantile 
ports and stations, and extend the empire of our 
commerce. As a nation we must always be peculiarly 
sensitive in regard to mercantile or political move- 
ments affecting the progress of the East. The 
absorption of North Borneo, its government, its 
natural resources, its soil, and its splendid possibilities, 
by a British company is therefore of peculiar interest 
and importance.* 

* " In lookiiig over the map of the world it is a melancholy reflection 
to view so large a portion of the habitable globe as all Borneo aban- 
doned to barbarism and desolation; that, with all her productive 
wealth and advantages of physical situation, her valuable and 
interesting shores should have been overlooked by all Europeans; 
that neither the Dutch nor the Fortuguefie, with centuries of uncon- 
trolled power in these seas, should have shed a ray of civilisation on 
shores bordering upon their principal settlements ; that her ports and 
rivers, instead of affording a shelter to the extensive commerce of 
China, should at this enlightened period of the world hold out only 
terror and dismay to the mariner ; and that all that she should have 
acquired from the deadly vicinage and withering grasp of Dutch 
power and dominion has been the art of more speedily destroying 
each other, and rendering themselves obnoxious to the rest of man- 
kind. Now that her destinies are transferred to the enlightened 
heads and liberal hearts of Englishmen, now that her fortunes are 
embarked under the administration of a wise and liberal government, 
we may confidently hope that a happier order of things will, under 
the blessing of an all-ruling Providence, speedily restore these 
extensive shores to peace, to plenty, and to commerce ; and we 
•ardently trust that another age may not be suffered to pass away 

B 2 



4 THE NEW CEYLON. 

Merchants and traders of tlie City of London, before 
and since the halcyon days of Sir Thomas Gresham, 
have been celebrated for their far-reaching enter- 
prise and ambition. Their determination to trade 
with the East was the moving spirit of many of the 
early undertakings of our great explorers. Curiously 
enough, it was an incorporated society of merchant 
adventurers that opened up Bussia as an English 
market. This commercial alliance was an incident of 
the eventful reign of Elizabeth. In those days we 
coupled India and China together under the name of 
" Cathay/' and the triumphs of Drake, Hawkins, and 
Frobisher over the captains of Spain giving us, after 
the destruction of the Armada, freedom of the seas 
and the right to establish English colonies on American 
soil, only intensified the desire of London, Bristol, and 
other English ports to trade with "far Cathay /' 
Failing to reach India by the Polar Seas, and after 
a disastrous attempt to get there through Russia^ 
Ralph Fitch, in 1583, reverted to the more familiar 
path of previous mariners by the Mediterranean and 
the Persian Gulf. He was seized and imprisoned by 
the Portuguese. James Lancaster followed in 1591, 
in the track of the Portuguese themselves, sailing 

without exhibiting something consolatory to the statesman, the 
philosopher, and philanthropist." — Report of J. Euntj Esq,, to Sir 
Stamford Raffles (1812), on "behalf of the East India Company, 



A NEW COLONY BY EOYAL CHABTBE. 5 

round the Cape of Good Hope. The captain adventurer 
and seven of his companions survived the disastrous 
failure. Sacrifices of men and money had marked the 
long history of our efforts to trade with the Bast, but 
only to stimulate the country to fresh exertions. " The 
last day of the first year of the seventeenth century/^ 
says Dr. Teats^ in his excellent treatise on " The Growth 
and Vicissitudes of Commerce," " was signalised by the 
incorporation of the Governor and Company of the 
Merchants of London trading to the East Indies. 
Five ships laden with merchandise were despatched 
under Captain Lancaster. Their commander visited 
Sumatra and Java, established factories, and returned 
with freights of great value. The success of the 
enterprise, which Elizabeth did not live to see, gave 
promise of a vigorous growth of the new company, 
without, however, foreshadowing the imperial splen- 
dour that awaited it.^' 

Taking into consideration the height of the power 
which has grown up on these foundations, and the 
general competition of great nations for the command 
of the world, it would, at first blush, seem as if but 
little opening were left for private enterprise. But, 
as Elizabeth endorsed with her bold signature the 
East India Company, so has Victoria placed her royal 
seal upon the British North Borneo Company, which 
has established its authority in a portion of what 



6 THE NEW CBTLOK. 

Hellwald and Wallace declare to be tlie richest group 
of islands in the world. 



II. 

Four or five years ago, Mr. Alfred Dent, a member 
of the commercial house of Dent Brothers and Co., 
London, having a wide knowledge of the countries of 
the East, turned his attention to those tropical gardens 
of the equator, which, round about the famous Bomean 
range of mountains, were literally running to inglorious 
seed. He visited the reigning authorities, and con- 
cluded negotiations with them for the transfer of 
their territorial rights. The reputation of the white 
man stands very high with the natives of Borneo. 
Mr. Dent found his path smoothed still farther by 
the success of British rule in another part of the 
island under Rajah Brooke. He was therefore enabled 
in 1878 to make a statement and application to her 
Majesty^s Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, which 
contains a brief history of his relations with the new 
colony, and in which may be found the raison d'etre 
of the charter.* During the whole of his intercourse 

* '* I oonf ess, in taking a larger raiig^ than a merely oommercial 
Tiew admits, that it seems to be a matter of very great national im- 
portance that this northern part of Borneo shonld not pass into the 
hands of any other country, considering the naval supremacy we 
have in those seas, and that it is on the fair way to so many of onr 



A NEW COLONY BY EOYAL CHARTEB. 7 

with the Sultans, and, indeed, from the first inception 
of this great enterprise, Mr. Dent, and afterwards 
the Oompsiny, have had the benefit of the personal 
advice and assistance of Mr. W. H. Read, a gentleman 
who has resided in Singapore upwards of forty years. 
His name is frequently mentioned in the published 
letters of the late Sir Jg^mes Brooke, whose friend he 
was, and whose system of administering through the 
local chiefs of Sarawak he approved. Mr. Bead 
over a long course of years had studied the question 
of governing native races, and his poUcy has been 
so successful that he has earned for himself the appel- 
lation of "the friend of the native.'' On returning 

possessions. Bemembering, too, that for some 1400 miles from 
Singapore to Hong Kong we have not a single port where any fleet 
of merchant ships conld find ref nge in case of warfare ; and that 
there might be the greatest possible injnry, if not destruction, to our 
commerce and to our mercantile navy from any enemy possessing 
such a port as there is in Gaya, on the north-west of Borneo, within 
the territory now conceded. It is a magnificent port, and in these 
seas there is nothing until you come to Labuan, which, it is very 
well known, possesses only a coaling station, and affords anchorage 
for but a few ships. Certain it is, that if we were at war to-morrow, 
and an enemy had possession of the country and port now under 
consideration, the first thing we should have to do would be to drive 
them out of it. It is wiser, in my opinion, to take it when it is 
offered, andj extending the protection of our flag over it, to occupy 
the groimd, than to let others take and fortify it. So that, whether 
you look at it commercially or politically, I consider this acquisition 
one of the greatest importance." — Sir Rutheirford Alcock, at the 
Meeting on North Borneo^ Ma/rch, 1879. 



8 THE NEW CBTLON. 

recently to Singapore, after a visit to England, he was 
welcomed home to the colony with marked demon- 
strations of esteem by all classes of the native popu- 
lation. After laying the foundation of the enterprise, 
Mr. Dent, in the year mentioned, formed a private 
association for the purpose of formally acquiring the 
territorial grants for which he had engaged himself 
with the reigning Sultans, and for developing the 
resources of the country. The Sultan of Borneo 
made three territorial grants to Mr. Dent and Baron 
Overbeck (who transferred them to the Company) 
all dated December 29fch, 1877. 

The sum and substance of the statement to the 
English Government is as follows: 

(a) By one he grants to Uie undersigned conjointly, their heirs, 
associates, snccessors, or assigns, certain districts described, on the 
north-west coast, with the islands off the coast. The districts 
granted are vested in the grantees, for so long as they choose 
to hold them. Bat a proviso is annexed, that the Snltan 
has the right to resnme the control and government thereof 
if the annual sum agreed for is not paid for three successive 
years. 

(h) The second grant, which is in the like form or to the 
like effect, relates to districts described, on the north-east 
coast. 

(c) The third grant, which is also in the like form or to the 
like effect, relates to other districts on the north-west coast, with 
other islands off the coast. It also comprises the province of 
Fappar, stated in the grant to belong to the Sultan as his private 
property. 



A NEW COLONY BY ROYAL CHARTER. 9 

By an instrument dated the same day, the Pangeran 
Tumongong of Brunei, the Sultan's minister and heir- 
presumptive or expected successor, made a similar 
grant of the provinces of Kimanis and Benoni, on 
the north-west coast, with the islands off the coast. 
These territories are set forth in the grant to belong 
to the grantor as his private property. 

These four grants of territory are accompanied by 
a fifth instrument emanating from the Sultan of 
Brunei. This instrument is a commission of ex* 
planation and delegation in relation to the powers- 
and privileges to be exercised and enjoyed in 
the granted territory. It recites first the effects 
of the four grants of territory; and then pro- 
ceeds to make known that the Sultan has nomi- 
nated and appointed the Company supreme rulers 
of the granted territory, with certain titles of a 
local character; and it enumerates their powers 
and rights, including full legislative and executive 
authority, the rights of property vested in the 
Sultan over the soil, rights over the productions of 
the country, and the right of levying customs and 
other dues and taxes. The enumeration ends with a 
general reference to all other powers and rights 
usually exercised by and belonging to sovereign 
rulers; and these the Sultan declares he thereby 
delegates to the Company, of his own free will. 



W 



10 THE NEW CETLON. 

The Sultan then, by this commission, calls on all 
foreign nations with whom he has friendly treaties to 
acknowledge the Company's chief representative as 
himself (the Sultan) in the granted territory, and to 
respect his authority therein. 



m. 

Before the negotiations above described, arrange- 
ments had been under discussion with the repre- 
sentative of an American partnership or company, 
which had some years before acquired, in the manner 
to be now stated, an interest in the territory so 
granted to the present Company. In August, 1865, 
the then United States Consul at Brunei obtained 
from the Sultan of Brunei and the Pangeran Tumon- 
gong three concessions of territory in North Borneo, 
including portions of the territory now in question, in 
consideration of certain annual payments. These 
concessions were substantially similar to the grants 
now in question, but in form were leases for ten years 
renewable. The lessee proceeded to form a partner- 
ship, called the American Trading Company of 
Borneo, consisting entirely of Americans, including 
Mr. Torrey, then in business at Hong Kong, after- 
wards United States Vice-Consul at Bangkok, and a 



A NBW COLONY BY EOYAL CHAETEB. 11 

few Chinese merchants at Hong Kong. To this body 
the lessee transferred his leases. In November, 1866, 
the Saltan issued another instmment^ which was 
countersigned by all his regular ministers, reciting 
these leases, and the transfer of them^ and the lessee's 
request that the authority under them might be 
vested in his partners in the American Trading 
Company; and then going on to appoint certain 
offices, with local titles, and to confer on him, 
as president of that company, large powers and 
rights of government and property. The American 
partnership or company proceeded to enter into 
trading operations on the coast; and, with the 
assistance of Chinese workmen and coolies imported 
from Hong Kong, they formed a settlement on the 
Kimanis River, on the north-west coast, about sixty 
miles from Labuan. But from want of capital the 
partnership did not flourish; the settlement broke 
up, the Chinese colonists returned to China; and 
no other attempt at the formation of establishments 
was made, the further operations of the partner- 
ship being limited to occasional trading ventures 
on the coast. They then became desirous to 
dispose of their leases and powers. Thereupon, 
Baron Overbeck, who afterwards represented Mr. 
Dent's association, entered into an agreement with 
Mr. Torrey, as president of and sole surviving 



12 THE NEW CEYLON. 

partner in the American partnership or company (for 
himself^ and on behalf of the partnership and their 
representatives, and all persons interested therein), 
for the sale and transfer of all the rights and 
interests of the American partnership in the terri- 
tories and leases, with the exclusive right to use 
the name or title of the American partnership. In 
May, 1875, he went to Brunei with Mr. Torrey. He 
there communicated with the Sultan and leading 
chiefs, in order to ascertain from them directly 
whether they considered the American leases still 
in force; and in course of various interviews, in 
which the Sultan and chiefs recognised the validity 
of the leases, the English representative satisfied 
himself that the leases had been made after friendly 
negotiations, freely, without pressure or coercion, 
and for good pecuniary considerations. When in 
1877 he returned to Brunei and obtained the grants 
now in question for the Association, Mr. Torrey 
again accompanied him, in order to convince the 
Sultan and chiefs that the new arrangement was 
being concluded with the approval of the holders 
of the American leases. 

The Sultan of Brunei and Pangeran Tumongong 
have received from Mr, Dent an agreed sum in 
settlement of all claims on their part under the 
American leases. 



A NEW COLONY BY EOYAL CHAETEB. 13 



IV. 

In addition to the four grants from the Sultan of 
Broneiy Mr. Dent and his associates have obtained 
from the Sultan of Sooloo one grant of territory, dated 
22nd January, 1878. Thereby, on behalf of himself, his 
heirs and successorsj^ and with the consent and advice 
of the Datoos in council assembled, the Sultan grants, 
of his own free and sovereign will, to the British 
Company, cojointly, their heirs, associates, successors, 
and assigns in perpetuity, his rights and powers over 
the territories tributary to him on the mainland, with 
certain limits therein specified, with the islands off 
the coast. In consideration of this grant they 
undertake to pay to him, his heirs or successors, 
5000 dollars a-year. The granted territory is there- 
by vested in the grantees for as long as they desire 
to hold it. The grant contains a proviso that the 
rights and privileges conferred thereby shall never 
be transferred to any other nation, or company of 
foreign nationality, without the sanction of her 
Britannic Majesty^s Government first obtained. It 
also declares that if a dispute arises between the 
Sultan and the Company, it shall be submitted to 
the British Oonsul-General for Borneo. 



14 THB NEW CETLOK. 

The two provisions last stated are additional to 
those contained in the grants from the Sultan of 
Brunei. They were added on the suggestion of her 
Majesty's then Acting Consul-General for Borneo. 

The territory granted by the Sultan of Sooloo is 
part of that granted by the Sultan of Brunei. Such 
portion of the territory as purports to be granted by 
both was considered as under the control of the 
Sultan of Sooloo, but the Sultan of Brunei asserted 
an ancient claim to the sovereignty of it. An 
examination of the validity of this claim would have 
seriously delayed the arrangements ; it was therefore 
thought expedient, on behalf of the Association, to 
have grants from both the Sultans. 

The Sultan of Sooloo has also granted a com- 
mission of explanation, and of delegation of powers 
and rights of government and legislation, and of 
property, corresponding with the commission above 
described as issued by the Sultan of Brunei. 

In order to convey to the natives information of 
the grants, each of the two Sultans deputed a high 
oflScer to accompany the representative of the 
Association in a voyage round the coast. At each 
of the places touched at, these native officers 
assembled the chiefs and people, and read to them 
a solemn proclamation of their Sultan, announcing 
the grants, and exhorting and commanding them 



A NEW COLONY BY EOYAL CHAETEB. 15 

to obey the new anthorities. This was done at six 
different places, and everywhere the news was received 
in a friendly spirit. 



The Companyi therefore, has satisfied the sove- 
reigns of the country ; no coercion or undue pressure 
has bee^n used ; and reasonable pecuniary arrange- 
ments have been made. They have also satisfied the 
local chiefs and native populations on the coast. 
Moreover, they had come to terms with the only 
possible rival claimants, namely^ the American Com- 
pany. They therefore proceeded to act under- their 
grants. At three of the principal points on the 
coast, small permanent establishments were forth- 
with established, namely, Sandakan, Tampassuk, and 
Pappar. 

These stations demonstrate the actual occupation 
of the territory under the grants. The Eesidents 
cultivate friendly relations vrith the natives, and 
by personal exploration and otherwise acquire infor- 
mation respecting the country, its people, and its 
mineral and agricultural resources. They administer 
justice to the natives, as far as practicable, and the 
natives cheerfully submit. A special fiag has been 
adopted, which is hoisted at each station. An 
arrangement has been made for a steamer to keep 



16 THE NEW CEYLON. 

up communication between the several stations and 
witli Labuan. 

At Sandakan^ where the Sultan of Sooloo collected 
heavy duties^ amounting in some instances to more 
than twenty per cent., and levied other onerous taxes 
on the natives, no taxes are at present collected 
on behalf of the Association, except five per cent, 
duty on imports. At Tampassuk, where the Sultan 
of Sooloo's rule was almost nominal, and the people 
had latterly not paid any taxes, none are at 
present collected. At Pappar, Kimanis, and Benoni, 
on which the Brunei chiefs had a firm hold, and 
where they exercised oppressive rule, custom dues of 
five per cent, on imports are collected. 

VI. 

The Company contemplate the introduction here- 
after of the system of farming out (but for purposes 
of revenue only) the right to sell spirits, opium, or 
other commodities, under strict regulations and super- 
intendence, in accordance with the practice of the 
Colonial Governments of Singapore, Hong Kong, and 
Labuan, and with that of the Government of the 
territory of Sarawak. They do not seek to secure any 
general monopoly of trade for themselves to the 
exclusion of any other party. Interchange of goods 
and wares of every description between natives and 



A NEW COLONY BY EOYAL CHAKPEB. 17 

foreigners will be free to all comers alike^ subject to 
customs dues. The natives will be placed on a foot- 
ing of equality with European and other foreign 
settlers^ as regards treatment in courts of justice. 
No foreigner, whether European, Chinese, or other, 
will be allowed to own slaves of any kind. The 
system of domestic servitude now existing among 
the tribes of the coast and interior will be discouraged 
and, as far as possible, abolished by degrees. The 
natives will be protected in respect of religion and 
property. Cases affecting their domestic institutions, 
such as marriage and divorce, will be determined with 
due regard to their laws and customs. 

The Treaty of 1847 between the Queen and the 
Sultan of Borneo (Brunei) stipulates (Article 3) that 
British subjects shall be permitted to purchase, rent, 
or occupy, or in any other legal way to acquire 
all kinds of property within the dominions of the 
Sultan. The same treaty (Article 10), after a con- 
firmation by the Sultan of his cession of Labuan 
to her Majesty, stipulates that the Sultan shall not 
make any similar cession, either of an island or of any 
settlement on the mainland, in any part of his 
dominions, to any other nation (that is, other than the 
British), or to the subjects or citizens thereof, with- 
out the consent of her Majesty. As between them 
and her Majesty's Government, the action of the 



18 THI NIEW CIETLOK. 

Company is justified by Article 3^ and is not 
condemned by Article 10 of the treaty. 

With respect to the British colony of Labuan, any 
fear that it will be injuriously affected, in trade or 
otherwise, by the establishment on the mainland now 
contemplated, is^ in the opinion of the Company, 
groundless. Labuan, which is situated near the 
entrance of the Brunei River, has its principal trade 
with the town of Brunei, and the mainland provinces 
in the immediate neighbourhood, extending north to 
the Eamanis River and Gaya Bay, and south to the 
frontier of Sarawak. This trade is carried on by 
native boats, the imports being mainly sago, beeswax, 
gutta-percha, indiarubber, and other natural products, 
which are bought by the Chinese and other traders at 
Labuan, and sent on to Singapore for resale there. 
The exports from Labuan consist of British manufac- 
tures and other goods, given in exchange for the 
above-mentioned commodities. There is little trade 
with the mainland districts, beyond the limits above 
described. Occasionally, smaller vessels of European 
build or native craft, arrive from Sarawak, Marudu 
Bay, or the Bast Coast, but the value represented by 
this wider trade must be small. Besides the trade 
with the near mainland, a British steamer of moderate 
size runs regularly between Labuan, Sandakan, and 
the Island of Sooloo, taking out English goods of 



A NEW COLONY BY EOYAL CHAETBB. 19 

yarioas descriptions^ and bringing back native pro- 
ducts^ collected by traders^ which are transhipped at 
Labnan to another British steamer^ and taken to 
Singapore for disposal. Two or three times a-jear, a 
European vessel of larger size arrives at Labnan from 
Hong Kong^ with an assortment of goods of Chinese 
manufacture^ or rice and salt, taking back usually 
hardwood timber, and smaller quantities of native 
produce suitable to the Chinese market. This con- 
stitutes the whole trading activity of Labuan. Ac- 
cording to the official return in 1876, the value of 
the imports was about £126^000, and of the exports 
£112,996. Indeed, instead of injury to the trade, the 
operations of the Company are calculated to advance 
the interests of Labuan, as is shown by facts. Steam- 
ships in the employment of the Association made 
several visits to the harbour of Labuan in the last 
twelve months. This is not a matter of indifference to 
the small trading population there. Provisions had to 
be purchased ; coal had to be taken in ; a considerable 
amount of money was spent in various ways. As the 
operations of the Company extend^ the visits of their 
ships will become more frequent. The amount of 
coal alone which for some time must be required for 
steamers will probably be sufficient to constitute the 
Company one of the principal customers of the 

Labuan coal-mines. They have acquired some land 

2 



20 THE NEW CEYLON. 

and house property in Labuan, believing that a per- 
manent establishment and agency will eventually be 
necessary there, as much of their business will 
naturally concentrate in the nearest British colony.* 
This is not without importance to the island, as, 
with the exception of a few Government officials 
and some persons connected with the coal-mines, 
there are scarcely any European house or land owners 
there. 

Upon these grounds the following application was 
submitted to her Majesty's Government. It comprises 
four parts : 

(a) The first point relates to the goyemment of sach British 
snbjects as may be resident in or resorting to the Company's terri- 
tory. The Treaty of 1847 (in its additional article) confers on her 
Majesty extra- territorial jurisdiction oyer British subjects within 
the dominions of the Sultan of Brunei. What is now asked 
is this: that her Majesty's Goyernment will think fit to put 
into exercise this jurisdiction, so that an effectiye system of con- 
trol oyer British subjects within the Company's territory may be 
established on a well-understood legal basis. Under the treaty this 
extra-territorial jurisdiction may be exercised through her Majesty's 
Consul-general or other officer duly appointed for that purpose by 
her Majesty. It is therefore not necessary that the officers to 
exercise the jurisdiction should be consular officers. The under- 
signed would mention that her Majesty might be graciously pleased 
to appoint the Company's Besidents as her officers to exercise it. 



* The collapse of the Coal Company in 1879 has materially affected 
the prosperity and importance of Labuau. 



A NEW COLONY BY EOYAL CHAETEE. 21 

The Company's Residents will be on the spot. Thej will not be 
engaged in trade on their own acconnt ; thej will necessarily obtain 
a knowledge of the costoms, opinions, and feelings of the natives 
with whom British subjects will come in contact ; they will acquire 
skill in the languages, an acquaintance with which will be requisite 
for the proper administration of justice. If her Majesty's Govern, 
ment should think fit to approve of this suggestion, the Company 
would undertake to provide the necessary court-houses and estab* 
lishments, and generally to bear all the expenses connected with 
the exercise of her Majesty's extra-territorial jurisdiction, as far 
and as long as the exercise thereof is entrusted to the Company's 
officials. 

(h) The second point of the application is that the Com- 
pany may have the countenance and protection of British con- 
sular, naval, and colonial 'authorities acting in Borneo and its 
neighbourhood. 

(c) The third point is that the Company may receive the support 
of her Majesty's Government with respect to the control of 
foreigners resident in or resorting to the Company's territory ; so 
that the Company may be relieved of any difficulties arising 
with foreign Gi)vernments in relation to their respective subjects 
or citizens. 

(d) The fourth and last point of the application is that her 
Majesty's Government will be pleased to grant to the proposed 
Company a charter of incorporation and regulation. 

It was set forth that such a grant would cany 
with it important advantages, not only for the Company 
but also for her Majesty^s Government : 

(o) The Company would obtain the benefits of incorporation, 
including a recog^sed status in law, without being fettered by the 
provisions of legislation relating to companies constituted merely 
for the purpose of gain j many of which provisions are inappropriate 
to the character and position of the intended Company, as, for 



22 THE NEW CEYLON. 

instance, the obligation to attaoh the term Limited to the corporate 
name. 

(5) On the other hand, her Majesty's Government oonld, in or in 
connection with a charter, impose terms and conditions; whereas 
they oonld have no direct opportnnity of putting any check on 
a company constituted by self-incorporation under the general 
legislation 

The following were expressed as the principal terms 
to which the Company would be ready to submit 
themselves in consideration of a grant of a charter : 

First. That the Company shall be British in character. 

Secondly. That the Company shall not transfer their territory 
or powers to any other company, body, or persons, without the 
previous consent of her Majesty's Government. 

Thirdly. That any difference from time to time arising between 
either of the Sultans, the grantors, and the Company shall be 
submitted to the decision of her Majesty's Government. 

Fourthly. That the Company shall not set up or grant any 
general monopoly of trade. 

Fifthly. That the appointment by the Company of the chief 
governor of their territory shall be subject to the approval of her 
Majesty's Government. 

Sixthly. That the appointment of the chief judicial officer acting 
in the Company's territory shall, as long as that officer is appointed 
by the Company and not directly by the Crown, be subject to the 
approval of her Majesty's Government. 

Seventhly. That the Company shall freely afford all facilities 
requisite for her Majesty's ships in the harbours of their territory. 

By making such arrangements as these, her 
Majesty's Government would, it was urged, do much 
to accomplish the desire of the Queen recorded in 



A NEW COLOKT BT BOTAL CHABTBB. 28 

tte preamble of the Treaty of 1847, namely : *'To 
encourage commerce between her Majesty's subjects 
and the subjects of the independent Prince of the 
Eastern Seas, and to put an end to piracies which 
have hitherto obstructed that commerce/^ 

Finally, the applicant, on behalf of himself and 
his associates, pointed out the prospects of the 
Company in their relation to the national pros- 
perity : " The natural resources of the granted 
territory are great. It has splendid harbours, 
and a good climate for the tropics. It contains 
extensive forests producing much hardwood timber, 
and there are believed to be in it valuable mineral 
deposits. It will afford new outlets for British trade, 
new markets (which are much needed) for British 
manufactures, and new and rich districts for the 
cultivation of coffee and tea, and for tropical agri- 
culture generally. There is every prospect of a good 
commercial return for the British capital employed. 
Civilisation and order will by degrees be intro- 
duced. And the interests of the British Empire 
will be promoted by the establishment of British 
occupation in a region offering by its situation and 
circumstances many strategical and other public 
advantages/'* 

* " Shonld so f ortimate an oocurrence erer faU to the lot of Borneo 
— should a strong and a wise goyemment eyer be established on her 



24 THE NEW CETLON. 

In December, 1880, her Majesty's Government 
informed Mr. Dent that, after a careful examination 
of his statement, they were disposed to recommend to 
the favourable consideration of the Queen the granting 
of a royal charter. A few months later, in order to 
improve the administration of the country and extend 
the work of development, a Provisional Company was 
formed to take over the vendors* interests. The 
Association was essentially private, but registered for 
convenience under the provisions of the Companies 
Acts, 1862 and 1880, with a nominal capital of 
£400,000. 

The first Directors were Mr. Alfred Dent; Sir 
Eutherford Alcock, K.C.B. ; Bichard Biddulph 
Martin, M.P. ; Bear- Admiral Mayne ; and Mr. W. 
H. Bead. These gentlemen, acting upon the previous 
representations made to the Government, and setting 

shores ; a g^yemment that wiU religiously respect property, and 
secure to industry the fruits of her labour; that will, by a wise 
system of laws, protect the peaceable and punish the violator of the 
laws of a well-organised society ; that will direct their industry to 
useful purposes and check their propensities to violence and plunder 
— such a government in a short series of years would behold, as if 
by magic, a paradise burst from her wilds, see cultivation smile upon 
her jungles, and hail a vast and increasing population, blessing the 
hand that awoke them to life, to happiness, and to prosperity. 
That so felicitous a change is not the mere reverie of a glowing 
imagination, nor the sheer effusion of benevolence alone, is easily 
demonstrable." — J, Hunt, Esq*, to Sir Stamford Raffies, 1812. 



A NEW COLONY BY BOYAL CHABTEB. 25 

them forth afresh^ petitioned the Crown in the 
following terms: 

" That your Majesty's petitioner, the British North Borneo Pro- 
yisional Association, Limited, consists of persons who lately agreed 
to join together for the temporary purposes of acting as inter- 
mediaries between yonr Majesty's petitioner, Alfred Dent, on the 
one hand, and a Company to be incorporated (if your Majesty 
should BO think fit) by royal charter on the other hand, and of carry- 
ing on until the grant of such a charter the management of the afiEairs 
arising under the grants and commissions aforesaid, and who for 
convenience of common action and for limitation of liability have 
incorporated themselves under the general statutes relating to 
companies, that Provisional Association having for its objects as 
declared by its memorandum of association (among others) the 
following (that is to say) : 

'' To purchase from Alfred Dent his interests and powers 

in, over, and affecting territories, lands, and property in 

Borneo, and islands lying near thereto, including Labuan. 

To acquire by purchase or other lawful means other 

interests and powers in, over, or affecting the same 

territories, lands, and property, and interests and powers 

in, over, or affecting other territories, lands, and property 

in the region aforesaid. To obtain from the Crown a 

charter incorporating|and regulating a Company constituted 

with the like objects as aforesaid, or other objects relating 

to any territories, lands, and property as aforesaid. To 

transfer to the Company so incorporated any interests and 

powers as aforesaid for the time being vested in the 

Association. 

" That all the interests and powers of your Majesty's petitioner, 

Alfred Dent, under the several grants and commissions aforesaid, 

have been transferred to and are now vested in your Majesty's 

petitioner, the British North Borneo Provisional Association, Limited. 

"That that Association will, in accordance with the provisional 

character indicated in its name, and in pursuance of the express 



26 THE NEW CETLON. 

proYiBioiis 9f its artioles of assooiatioxi, be Tolontttrily wonnd np in 
manner provided by statate, as soon as a sale or disposal of its 
territories, lands, and property to a Company to be incorporated (if 
yonr Majesty should so think fit) by royal charter has been effected, 
and will after payment and discharge of its debts and liabilities, and 
after distribution among its members of the proceeds of such sale or 
disposal, and of any other its assets, be dissolved. 

** That yonr Majesty's petitioners, Sir Bntherford Alcook, Bichard 
Biddnlph Martin, Bichard Charles Mayne, and William Henry 
Macleod Bead, are, with yonr Majesty's petitioner, Alfred Dent, the 
Directors of that Association. 

<*That the snccess of the enterprise in which yonr Majesty's 
petitioners are engaged as aforesaid woold be greatly advanced if it 
should seem fit to your Majesty to incorporate by your royal 
charter a Company to carry on that enterprise. 

'' That such a Chartered Company would render to your Majesty's 
dominions services of much value, and would promote the commercial 
prosperity of many of your Majesty's subjects. 

^' That your Majesty's petitioners are in a position to raise the 
capital requisite for the proper and effective conduct of the enter- 
prise aforesaid, and they hereby undertake to do so on obtaining the 
grant of such a charter." 



vn. 

Upon the above grounds, and with certain other 
specific undertakings in regard to the just govern- 
ment of the country, her Majesty in council assembled 
has granted to the Company a royal charter of incor- 
poration, and consented to the Company's adoption 
of a flag suggestive of the royal protection. The 
advantages of this official recognition are nume- 
rous. That it binds all concerned in the bond 



A NEW COLONY BY BOYAL CHABTSB. 27 

of a commercial responsibility; that it enables tlie 
Company to sue and be sned; that it brings 
its transactions within the jurisdiction of English 
courts of law; these are conditions that represent 
guarantees of security both to colonists, natives, 
traders, and investors — ^guarantees which cannot fail 
to be appreciated by merchants, planters, and others 
who are experienced in the miscellaneous commerce 
of the East. 

There are possibilities attending the future of the 
new Colony and the new Company which are of great 
national and international interest. They will be 
discussed in later pages, as will also the known 
vegetable and animal wealth of the country, and its 
reputed treasure of gold, copper, coal, and other 
minerals. The interior of North Borneo is yet almost 
unknown to the white man. All kinds of strange 
traditions touching its people and its natural history 
have been handed down from the earliest days of 
real and mythical exploration. Eecent travellers who 
have steamed up its rivers, traversed its forests, and 
climbed its mountains are united in their praises of the 
amiability of the native Dusuns, who are its chief in- 
habitants, and they equally agree in their impressions 
of the singular loveliness of the country; its capacity 
for growing coffee, rice, tobacco, and other tropical pro- 
ducts ; its wealth of native trees, gutta and others, and 



28 THE NEW CEYLON. 

the ease witH which its present small trade in sago, 
beeswax^ edible birdsnests, camphor^ hides^ rattans^ 
tortoiseshell, trepang, and pearls can be extended. 

The belief that the precious metals, not to mention 
the diamond, are plentiful in Borneo is as old as the 
hills * Gold is practicably worked in Dutch Borneo 
and in Sarawak, but not to any great extent. Borneo 
diamonds are more celebrated than numerous. But 

• ** The whole of Borneo is rich in mineral productions ; those 
which have receiyed attention in this Besidency are diamonds, gold, 
and iron. 

'^The principal diamond mines are in the district of Landak. 
The Ar^ng (conglomerati P) in which the diamonds are found, is a 
kind o| yellowish gravelly earth, mixed with pebbles of various sizes 
and shapes, and is found at different depths below the surface. 
From fifty to sixty feet is the greatest depth to which a shaft has 
hitherto been sunk, and the following, it is said, are the strata 
which are dng through when the Ar^ng is at these depths : three feet 
black mould, seventeen yellow sandy clay, seventeen redder clay, 
six or seven of a tenacious slate-coloured clay mixed with stones, an 
equal depth of a similar clay without stones, but mixed with pebbles, 
Und known by the name of Amper, and six or seven of a tenacious 
yellow clay. 

" The presence of the Amper strata is considered a sure indication 
of a vein. 

" The mines are worked by the Dayak, Malay, and Chinese. The 
former proceed in the following manner. A shaft barely sufficient 
to permit the miner to turn round in, or at most two feet in 
diameter, is sunk to the Ar^ng. This is from one to three feet in 
thickness, and is dug out to the extent of seven or eight feet from 
the sides of the shaft, under the upper strata, which sometimes is 
propped up ; but the laziness or improvidence of the Dayak is Buch| 
that this precaution is often forgotten, the upper strata falls in, and 



A NEW COLONY BY EOYAL CHARTER. 29 

tradition would lead one to believe tliat the mineral 
treasures of the island are more likely to be found in 
the hitherto unexplored districts of the north than 
at any other point, and there are scientific reasons 
for this opinion. In succeeding chapters we will 
return to the subject of diamond and gold mining. 
But it may be as well to say in this place, that the 

the mmers miserablj perish. These accidents most frequently 
occur when an adjacent shaft is sank, which is thns done: The 
Ar^ng in the first mine being expended, and the course of the yein 
ascertained, a new shaft is sunk in that direction at the distance of 
fifteen or sixteen feet from the preceding, to enable the miners 
when arrived at the Ar^ng to work back to their former mine, and 
the same process is repeated until the vein be exhausted. The 
Ar^ng is hoisted up in small baskets by bamboos, on the ends of 
which part of a branch is left and forms a small hook. The search 
for the diamonds is conducted in an equally simple manner. SmaU 
dulans, circular trays slightly converging towards the centre, are 
nearly filled with Ar^ng; and the Dayak sitting himself in the 
nearest stream immerses the dulan, and works the Ar^ng by hand 
nntil the earthy particles begin to separate; the dulan is then 
brought to the surface, and a rotatory motion is given to it, until 
the water it contains, being saturated with earthy matter, is poured 
off, and this is continued till such time as the water comes away 
dean. The pebbles, etc., which remain in the centre then undergo a 
strict examination. . . . 

** The largest diamond known with certainty to have been found in 
these mines weighed thirty-six carats. It was long supposed that 
the Sultan of Matan possessed one weighing three hundred and 
sixty-seven, which it was said he was afraid to cut lest it should 
prove flawed, but gentlemen to whom it has been lately shown con- 
sider it not to be a true stone." — " Notices of the Indian ArcTyipelago/' 
edited 6y J, H, Moor, published at Singapore, 1837. 



80 THX NIW CHETLOK. 

possibility of important discoveries in that direction is 
not in any respects a leading feature of the hopes'and 
anticipations of the modem explorers of Borneo. 



ym. 

This annexation by a company of London merchants^ 
capitalists^ and travellers of a country larger than 
Ceylon, and as valuable as any known territory of 
the Malay Archipelago, recalls the beginnings of more 
than one of our great colonial possessions. It suggests 
the early days of our Eastern Empire, but in such 
shape as to lead to the hope that it marks a new era 
in the history of the colonising aspirations of the 
Anglo-Saxon, the era of pacific annexation, the 
business alUance of whites and blacks in the cultiva- 
tion and development of the neglected places of 
the world. To increase and multiply and govern 
,the earth seems to be a special Anglo-Saxon 
mission. An instinct of possession, a general "land 
hunger,'^ is a prevailing characteristic of the race* 
In the old days we sallied forth, and by right 
of might added to our empire new lands for 
our surplus populations. To-day, capital even more 
than industry is seeking for fresh fields of enter- 
prise. Sir Eutherford Alcock, who has taken a 
friendly interest in British North Borneo for some 



A NEW COLONY BY EOYAL CHABTEB. 31 

years, believes there are many enterprising persons 
with a little capital who will torn their attention 
to such a possession as this, ''who hare hitherto 
been precluded from settling in Ceylon and other 
colonies in the Indian Archipelago/'* 

Having introduced the reader to the newest depar- 
ture, or we might better say revival, in British 
enterprise, let us turn our attention to the remarkable 
and little known scenes where the new power has 
been so unostentatiously established. 

* "The great want in onr days seems to be some healthy place 
where planting can be carried on, especiaUy of tea, coffee, cinchona, 
and all such like products of India and Gejlon. Yonng men are not 
so willing to adopt the pen and desk as they used to be ; bat are 
more anxions to seek fields for tropical agriculture, or country life of 
some sort. It is useless, as Sir Butherf ord has pointed out, for a man 
to go to Oeylon now unless he has a capital of £5000 at least in his 
pocket, as the good f orest-land is selling there at from £18 to £25 per 
acre. It is moreover stated that there are not more than 30,000 to 
40,000 acres of land left in Oeylon and suited for the cultivation of 
coffee arabica, or other produce of the hills, at an elevation of over. 
2000 feet. We think this want is supplied in Korth Borneo, and 
that in respect of climate, soil, rainfall, labour, and disposition of the 
natives, it affords a better field for the young planter than Ferak or 
Johore, where experiments are now going on." — Mr. Alfred Dent, at 
a Meeting to discuss the affairs of North Borneo^ March 26, 1879, 



II. 

LANDS OF PERPETUAL SUMMER. 

The Island of Borneo — Sarawak and the Dutch Possessions — ^Interest- 
ing Statistics — ^Travellers* Tales — Native Women — Strange and 
barbarous Customs — ^Human Sacrifice — A previous Age of Civili- 
sation and Prosperity — Mineral Treasures — Gold Mines — Famous 
Diamonds. 

I. 

"Peagments of a continent," althougli now ^^a geo- 
graphical unit," is Wallace^s description of the Malay 
Archipelago. In prehistoric ages Asia and Australia 
were united. This was in what geologists call the 
Secondary Epoch, ^^ The processes of subsidence and 
upheaval resulting in the present insular formations 
were not, however, developed till a much later period." 
Glance at your map and take note of the extent 
of these fragments, one of which is considerably 
larger than England. They have been not inaptly 
called "The Gardens of the Sun." Chief of these 
"isles of the sea," lands of perpetual summer, is 
Borneo. Situated on a great ocean highway of 
trade and commerce, possessing noble harbours, and 



LANDS OP PERPETUAL SUMMER. 33 

rich in all kinds of tropical products, it is, with the 
exception of Australia, the largest island in the world. 
It is 850 English miles in length, its greatest breadth 
600. Its coast line i3 upwards of 3000 miles; its 
area is 280,000 statute square miles; it is larger than 
France, and more than three times the size of England. 
It is bounded on the north by the Sooloo Ocean, on the 
east by the Straits of Macassar, on the south by the 
Java, and on the west by the China Seas. 

The English have always been sensible of the value 
of Borneo, commercially and otherwise. As early as 
1706 they made efforts to establish themselves on its 
coasts. The only appearance of success in the history 
of these attempts was the occupation of a small 
island on the north, which was eventually abandoned. 
Various reasons are alleged for the failure of the 
English authorities; probably their secured possessions 
in other parts of the East sufficiently occupied their 
time and attention. The Spaniards and the Dutch 
were their competitors for supremacy in the Malay 
Archipelago, and these maritime powers succeeded 
in planting their flags upon many of the rich, though 
comparatively unknown, islands of the Eastern Seas. 

Until forty years ago the story of Borneo was 
that of an uncivilised country, the possession of which 
was a bone of contention between the Dutch and the 
English. Oliver Van Noort visited the island in 1598. 



34 THE NEW CBYLOIT. 

A few years later his countrymen began to trade with 
it. In 1609 they concluded a commercial treaty with 
the rulers of the Sambas, and built a factory. After 
about twenty years of effort they abandoned the idea 
of establishing a settlement. 

In 1707 the English appear on the Bomean 
coast. They build factories, but with no perma- 
nent success. In 1763 they take possession of Balam- 
bangan, and in 1775 the garrison is successfully 
assaulted by pirates. A year later the Dutch establish 
a factory at Pontianak^ and in 1780 the reigning 
powers cede part of the west coast to the Dutch. In 
alliance with the Sultan of Pontianak, they destroy 
Succadana, and in 1787 are granted portions of the 
south coast. In 1812 an English expedition goes 
out against Sambas and fails; to succeed, however, 
in 1813. In 1818 the Dutch, who during this wq^r 
had been expelled by the English, return, and their 
Bomean colonies are now formed into a special 
government. 

Sir James Brooke visited Borneo in 1839, to 
succeed in carrying out, by his own personal 
energy, what the great East India Company had 
failed to accomplish. He founded Sarawak. With 
the aid of Admiral Keppel he annihilated the dan- 
gerous hordes of pirates that infested the western 
coasts. He successfully stamped out a rising of 



LANDS OP PERPETUAL SUMMER, 35 

Chinese, in which operation the native tribea loyally 
came to his assistance; and he has demonstrated, 
financially and politically, the wisdom of those early 
Dutch and British adventurers who saw a splendid 
property in the island of Borneo. In 1847 the 
English Government, seeing the importance of a 
station in this latitude, purchased Labuan, an island 
off the coast of Borneo, and made it an English 
colony, with a governor and all the necessary officers 
and appliances of an efficient administration. Such is 
the brief history of Borneo, possession of which is now / 
divided between the Dutch Government, the Sultan I 
of Brunei, Rajah Brooke, and the British North 
Borneo Company, the latter recently endorsed in its 
undertaking by the royal charter of her Majesty 
Queen Victoria. 

n. 

Borneo has been made famiUar to the general 

reader by the settlement of Sarawak, which is situated 

on the western side of the island. Rajah Brockets 

territory consists of over 30,000 square miles. The 

justice of its administration has enhanced the character 

of the white man throughout the island, and has 

done much towards establishing the perfect confidence 

reposed in Englishmen wherever they may present 

themselves among the natives from shore to shore. 

D 2 



36 THE NEW CEYLON. 

Alone and unaided, without state protection or 
official service, for forty years Sarawak has main- 
tained an independent position, her English chief 
holding sovereign power, his government being often 
spoken of by travellers who have visited Borneo as 
an example worthy to be studied by some of the 
■ world's greatest powers. The British North Borneo 
' Company have raised their flag over about the same 
extent of country as that which comprises Sarawak ; 
and they have wisely imitated the policy of Rajah 
Brooke in ruling the natives through their chiefs, 
and with all due respect to their own laws, customs, 
and religion. Sarawak is a happy and prosperous 
colony. With a population of 240,000 souls, it has a 
respectable military force, garrisons, and forts ; it pays 
a competent staff of European and native officers ; and 
maintains three gunboats to protect its commerce and 
guarantee the safety of life and property to its subjects.* 

* << The history of the English Bajahs of Sarawak is well worthy 
of stndy by politicians and statesmen ; and it opens np the great 
question of whether the futnre of the human race might not be 
benefited by the extension of the system here inaugurated, of the 
free government of small semi-barbarous states, under trained and 
educated English gentlemen, untrammelled by the cramping influence 
of official subordination, and nnburthened by the dead weight of a 
complex governmental organisation and an elaborate system of 
legal and official precedents. What finer field can we imagine for 
the energies of young men of talent and fortune, than thus taking 
part in the raising of depressed races, the formation of free states 



LANDS OP PEEPETUAL SUMMER. 37 

In 1871 the imports to Sarawak amounted to 
1,427,923 dollars, and the exports to 1,268,337 
dollars; while in 1879 the imports were 1,938,964 
dollars, and the exports 1,980,290 dollars. In 1871 
the revenue returns were 157,501 dollars, and in 
1879, 229,302 dollars. The expenditure in the latter 
year was 191,629 dollars, leaving a surplus of 
37,673 dollars. The Dutch claim suzerainty over 
all the other portions of Borneo that are not occu- 
pied by Eajah Brooke in Sarawak, the British North 
Borneo Company in Sabah and the Sultanate of 
Brunei. They have established something like a 
regular government over the coast districts of the 
west and south. They have Eesidents in the southern 
and eastern districts, and their chief town is Pontianak. 
A native sultan is nominal ruler. They have as yet 
however done nothing in the way of developing this 
colony compared with their working of other posses- 
sions, notably the neighbouring island of Java,* the 

and the adyancement of civilisation? And what more admirable 
means can be suggested of elevating sach races, than the being 
placed nnder the mle of men whose one object wonld be to save 
them from oppression, misrule, and social misery, to educate them to 
self-government, and so enable them to grow unfettered to whatever 
degree of civilisation they are capable of attaining f " — " AusU'alasia** 
In/ A» £. Wallace, 

• « The rule of the Dutch in this fine island is very successful. 
Good roads traverse it in every direction, life and property are as 
safe as in any part of Europe, and the inhabitants are as happy and 



38 THE NEW CEYLON. 

exports from which amount to about twelve millions 
sterling, the net revenue remitted to Holland (previous 
to the Acheen war) varying from two to four million 
pounds sterling. 

contented as anj people are likely to be nnder the rule of an alien 
race. The system by which the people have been made to work at 
fixed wages, and to sell certain products at fixed rates to the Govern- 
ment, has enabled the Dntch officials to remit a large annual revenue 
to Europe ; but this has been done without any serious oppression of 
the natives, who have always been accustomed so to work for their 
native chiefs, or on the lands of the village community. One of the 
best tests of the general well-being of a community is that of the 
growth of the population; for where this is steadily increasing, 
where there is no pauperism, where serious crime is rare, and where 
famine and rebellion on any important scale are almost unknown, 
the government cannot be otherwise than suitable to the people 
governed. This is the case with Java. In 1850 the population was 
about 9i millions, in 1865 it had increased to dose upon 14 millions, in 
1874 it was 16i millions, and at the present time it is estimated at 
about 18 millions. It has therefore nearly doubled la eighteen 
years, and, notwithstanding that a large portion of the surface of 
the island is covered with lofty mountains and trackless forests, it 
supports a population of greater density than Great Britain. There 
are about 80,000 Europeans in Java, and 156,000 Chinese. The 
army consists of 27,000 men, of whom 11,000 are Europeans. . , . It 
may safely be predicted that if the Dutch Government freely throw 
opeu Java to the world, the result will be that many capitalists will 
make fortunes, but the native inhabitants will not be benefited. The 
exports from Java amount in value to ten or twelve millions sterling 
annually; and the net revenue which is remitted every year to 
Holland varies from two to four millions." — Wallace, 



LANDS OF FEBPETUAL SUMMES. 39 



Notwithstanding the suzerainty of the Dutch in 
one district, and the eJBicient government of Bajah 
Brooke in another, the interior of Borneo and the 
northern regions have been until quite recently a 
terra mcognita. The home of the orang-outang, 
tradition gives to this country a race of wild people 
living in trees, and tribes of savages who occupy 
themselves chiefly in extending their trophies of 
skulls. Coupled with these horrors, travellers have 
declared the country to be rich in diamonds and gold, 
a sort of combined Golgotha and Qolconda. Even to- 
day the Dutch possessions in Borneo would seem to 
be almost '^an unknown quantity," judging from the 
latest work on the subject, issued under the title of 
"The Head Hunters of Borneo/^ written by Carl 
Bock, the publisher's announcement stating that: 
'' The author gives an account of his overland journey 
in Borneo, as leader of the Dutch Government Explor- 
ing Expedition. Among other matters, the book de- 
scribes and gives drawings of the fair-skinned race 
inhabiting the forests of the island, of whom the 
women at least have never previously been seen by 
any European traveller/^ I have letters before me 
from travellers now exploring North Borneo, who are 



40 THE NEW CEYLON. 

the first white men to make the acquaintance of many 
of the native tribes ; but at present they have come 
upon no lu8U8 naturae, or degenerate man, such as 
Dr. Maclay met with in Johore, or such as previous 
travellers declare they have seen in Borneo. For 
example, the Singapore Ghronicle, of 1831, contained 
the following notes, written by Mr. Dalton, who had 
resided on the east coast of Borneo. They are reprinted 
in Mr. Moor^s " Notices of the Indian Archipelago : " 

** Farther towards the north of Borneo are to be found men living 
absolutely in a state of nature, who neither cultivate the ground 
nor live in huts; who neither eat rioe nor salt, and who do not 
associate with each other, but rove about some woods like wild 
beasts. The sexes meet in the jungle, or the man carries away a 
woman from some kampong. When the children are old enough to 
shift for themselves they usually separate, neither one afterwards 
thinking of the other ; at night they sleep under some large tree, 
the branches of which hang low. On these they fasten the children 
in a kind of swing ; around the tree they make a fire to keep off the 
wild beasts and snakes ; they cover themselves with a piece of bark, 
and in this also they wrap their children j it is soft and warm, but 
will not keep out the rain. These poor creatures are looked on and 
treated by the Dayaks as wild beasts j hunting-parties of twenty-five 
and thirty go out and amuse themselves with shooting at the children 
in the trees with sumpits, the same as monkeys, from which they are 
not easily distinguished. The men taken in these excursions are 
invariably killed, the women commonly spared, if young. It is 
somewhat remarkable that the children of these wild Dayaks cannot 
be sufficiently tamed to be entrusted with their liberty. Selgie (the 
I>a:ak chief of Goti) told me he never recollected an instance when 
they did not escape to the jungle the very first opportunity, 
notwithstanling many of them had been treated kindly for 
years." 



LANDS OF PERPETUAL SUMMER. 41 

Mr. George Windsor Earl, author of " The Native 
Baces of the Indian Archipelago/^ and "Eastern 
Seas/^ in his former work, published in 1853, dis- 
counts this information. He desires the reader not 
to forget that it is obtained from natives, who having 
organised parties for hunting these singular beings, 
were interested in making them appear as much as 
possible in the light of wild beasts. 



IV. 

There are as many versions of the appearance 
and character of the native women as there are 
types and races. It is well known that some of 
the Malay women are attractive, and, from a 
Mongolian point of view, even beautiful. The 
Milanos of Borneo are one of the most numerous of 
the tribes. Mr. W. M. Crocker, an administrator 
as well as traveller in Sarawak, says the Milano 
women have won a reputation for beauty ; but while 
there are a few good-looking girls among them 
as a tribe, they are behind the Malays in figure 
and regularity of features. They are very white 
(i.e. an unhealthy milky white), and their heads are 
flattened in childhood. Their work of treading or 
expressing the sago makes their feet very large, and 
their figures are squat and stumpy. Mr. Crocker 



42 THE NEW CEYLON. 

believes the practice of flattening the heads of 
children in Borneo is entirely confined to the Milanos. 
^^I have not heard/^ he says, "of its having been 
found to exist among any of the numerous tribes 
which inhabit the Eastern Archipelago. A similar 
custom prevails among the Indians of the Mosquito 
shore/^ Mr. T. W. Burbidge, who was in Borneo 
during the year 1878, on a naturalist^s expedition, 
is eloquent as to the graces of the women he saw 
at Kambatuan, a village of British North Borneo. 

" We had a large oonoourse of the villagers in to see us this eyening 
after dinner, including ' Beuhan,' the headmanj who wears a head, 
cloth and kriss, and in general build and physiognomy resembles th& 
Sulns much more than either Dusun or Malays. ' Kurow ' was the 
principal talker, and related all that we had done and how much 
he had helped us in ascending the mountain. The young girls 
crowded to see us, and tried hard to get speech with us. We had 
given the girls who brought us fruit a looking-glass each, and we could 
quite well understand that aU were eager for a similar gift. They 
were very, very scantily clad; indeed the most tolerant of Lord 
Chamberlains might weU wish to add an inch or two to their tiny 
petticoat, especially as 'tis the only garment of which they can 
boast. It answers somewhat to the American definition of a dress 
* which began too late and left off too soon.' Here, however, it is 
the customary fashion, and as such is honoui'ed. How graceful were 
the figures of some of these young girls! Perfect little Amazons, 
lithe of limb and having regular features, eyes full of gentle ex. 
pression, and a richness of raven hair most European ladies might 
envy. It is pleasant to know that these dusky girlSj lovely as some 
of them are, will never be degraded to anything worse than field 
labour, which is a far better lot than that of their Malayan sisters 
along the coast, whose personal charms chance to be interesting. 



LANDS OF FEEPETUAL SUMMES. 43 

We found ont later on in the evening that the pretty damsel who 
had first brought us fruit was the headman's daughter, 'Sa' Tira' 
hj name. Most of the evening she knelt by the fire, her dainty little 
fingers busily making cigarettes for her papa's guests, many of whom 
had arrived from other villages near to look at us. Altogether we 
spent a very pleasant evening with these hospitable people, and we 
have no doubt but that they will long look back to our visit them- 
selves, seeing that whole months frequently elapse without their 
seeing anyone from the coast even, much less a white man or two 
from far-off Labuan." 

"The Journal of the Indian Archipelago^' for 1849 
contains some interesting notes by Mr. Bums, "the 
first European/' says the editor, "who has ventured to 
explore the interior of Borneo Proper.'' Speaking of 
the Kdyans, he says the sexes are in about equal 
number; that they enjoy the social intercourse of 
civilised people; that unohastity is of rare occur- 
rence ; that marriage takes place at an early age ; that 
adultery is punished with death, so also is theft, while 
murder is a matter of compromise with " the parties 
concerned." The Kayans are a proud race. The men 
as a rule do not tattoo, but many of the higher classes 
have small figures of stars, beasts, or birds on various 
parts of their bodies, the highest mark of distinction 
being the colouring of the backs of the hands, which 
is only conferred upon the brave in battle. With the 
women, the arms, from the elbows to the points of the 
fingers, are beautifully tattooed, as are also the legs 
from the thighs to a little below the knees, and like- 



44 THE NEW CEYLON. 

wise the upper parts of the feet ; and those of very 
high rank have in addition one or more small spots on 
the breasts. In tattooing the performer pricks the 
design or pattern with three needles, and afterwards 
smokes it with a dammar torch, by which process a 
beautiful dark-blue is produced ; but inflammation of 
a serious nature frequently follows. The operation 
of tattooing begins when girls are about four 
or five years of age, and is continued gradually, 
the latest ornamentation being finished at woman- 
hood. With both sexes while very young, the 
lobes of the ears are perforated, and large rings of 
copper, brass, or tin inserted, by which that part of 
the organ is extended commonly from five to seven 
inches, but frequently more. In women especially, it 
is considered a mark of beauty to have them extended 
to the breasts, which is quite common among them. 
As the loss of her flowing locks to a European belle, 
so to a Kaydn beauty would be the deforming or 
breaking of her pendant ear-lobes. The earrings are 
commonly in weight about twenty ounces each pair. 

The traveller came upon no evidences of canni- 
balism, and the natives whom he saw indignantly 
repudiated the suggestions of such barbarism. 
"But,^' he says, '^ it would seem to have been pre- 
valent amongst them formerly, especially on the 
occasion of the king or principal chief taking posses- 



LANDS OF PEBPETUAL SUMMER. 45 

sion of a newly-built house, and also on the occasion 
of his death/' An instance of this revolting custom 
was acknowledged to have taken place about two 
years previously, when Batu Dian entered upon his 
new abode. "The victim was a Malay slave girl 
brought from the coast for the avowed purpose, and 
sold to the chief by a man who was also a Malay. 
It is said to be contrary to the Kayan custom to sell 
or sacrifice one of their own nation. In the case 
alluded to, the unfortunate victim was bled to death, 
the blood was taken and sprinkled on the pillars and 
under the house, but the body was thrown into the 
river. It is the blood only that is prized, or 
considered efficacious. During my stay in the 
house of the chief Knipa Batu, one of his chil- 
dren, a little boy, was at the point of death from 
fever. After exhausting all their skill in applying 
remedies, as a last resource the chief took a young 
chicken and passed it a number of times over the face 
of the child, then with his most valued war sword 
killed it at the window, and threw it upwards from 
him in the direction of the setting sun. The sword 
with the blood on it he then held over the face of the 
child as before, with fervent invocation, desiring that 
his beloved child might not die, and laying himself 
down beside the unconscious little sufferer, indulged 
in the wildest paroxysm of grief." 



46 THE NEW CEYLON, 

Many other strange and barbarous customs are 
mentioned by travellers in the olden days. Some of 
their narratives may be taken with a grain of salt. 
Several recent visitors to Borneo, especially in the 
north, seem only to have found regions of Arcadian 
simplicity.* 



It is curious that the barbarism described by early 
travellers should have had, according to tradition and 
history, a previous period of something akin to com- 
mercial prosperity and civilisation. In an oiBioial 
statement made by Mr. J. Hunt to Sir Stamford 
Baffles in 1812, he says that "when the Portuguese first 
visited Borneo, in 1520, the whole island was in a 

* " A yojage of a few weeks brings ns to these beauty-spots of the 
Eastern Seas — to an ' always-aftemoon ' kind of climate — ^where 
winter is unknown. Warmed by perpetual sunshine, deluged by 
copious rains, and thrilled by electricity, they are really enormous 
conservatories of beautiful vegetation — great Zoological Ghkrdens 
inhabited by rare birds and curious animals. In these sunny 
garden scenes man is the Adam of a modem Eden. Primitive in 
habits and numerically insignificant, he has scarcely begun his 
battle with things inanimate, or his struggle for existence as it is 
known to us. At home we have man as in some sort the master of 
Kature, but in the Bomean forests Kature still reigns supreme. 
Here with us man wrests hia sustenance from her — ^there she is 
lavish in the bestowal of gifts unsought." — Preface to " Gardens of the 
8m,*' 1880. 



LAIRDS OF FEBPETUAL SUHMEB. 47 

most flourishing state. The nnmbers of Chinese that 
had settled on her shores were immense ; the products 
of their industry, and an extensive commerce with 
China in junks, gave her land and cities a far different 
aspect from her dreary appearance at this day, and 
their princes and courts exhibited a splendour and dis- 
played a magnificence which has long since vanished/^ 
This is borne out by Pigof etta, who spoke of the town 
of Brunei having 25,000 houses and being '^ rich and 
populous/^ Later accounts describe the frequent 
visits of Chinese and Japanese junks to the Bornean 
ports. In 1809, however, there were not 3000 houses 
nor 6000 Chinese in the place, and up to that 
time (nor since, I believe) a junk had not for years 
been seen in Bornean waters. "But,'^ says Mr. Hunt, 
'^ the ports of Borneo have not dwindled away more 
than Acheen, Johore, Malacca, Bantan, Temate, etc. 
All these places likewise cut a splendid figure in the 
eyes of our first navigators, and have since equally 
shared a proportionate obscurity/' 

Mr. Hunt attributes the cause of this remarkable 
change to a decay in commerce. '^ In exact propor- 
tion as the intercourse with the Europeans with China 
has increased, in precise ratio has the decrease of their 
direct trade in junks become apparent. The Portu- 
guese first, and subsequently the Dutch, mistress 
of the Eastern Seas, exacted, by treaties and other 



48 THE NEW CETLON. 

ways, the Malay produce at tlieir own rates, and were 
consequently enabled to undersell tlie junks in China. 
But these powers went further; by settling at ports 
on Borneo, or by their guardes de costas, they com- 
pelled the ports of Borneo to send their produce, 
calculated for the China market, to Malacca and 
Batavia, which at length completely cut up the 
direct trade by means of the Chinese junks/^ The 
loss of direct intercourse with China compelled the 
adoption of a circuitous course which doubled the cost 
of carriage, and finally destroyed the trade. Not only 
did this throw labourers out of employment, it stopped 
the emigration of the Chinese, whose industry and 
mechanical skill had enhanced the local prosperity. 
The rajahs, finding their revenue reduced, turned their 
attention from trade and commerce to maritime and 
piratical enterprise. Agriculture was thus neglected, 
and lands hitherto profitably cultivated were allowed 
to run to jungle and to waste. 



VI. 

The fertility of Borneo in the matter of vegetation 
is a favourite theme of all travellers, ancient and 
modem ; and without the same established and easily 
accessible proofs to back their statements, they are 
all agreed as to its enormous mineral wealth. In the 



LANDS OF FEBPETUAL STJMMEB, 49 

past, exaggerated reports were pablished by travellers 
who excited the imaginations of their readers with 
descriptions of Borneo diamonds and Borneo gold. 
According to some of these romances, it would seem 
as if these precious treasures were lying about, await- 
ing the arrival of venturous explorers to pick them up. 
It is true that dangers were suggested, some of them 
not inferior to the monstrous guardians which watch 
over the treasures in ^'The Arabian Nights/' But 
with all this smoke there was a certain amount of 
fire. When Mr. Hunt was in Borneo, there were gold 
mines in the vicinity of Sambas and also at Matan. 
Mention of this latter district recalls the subject of 
" the largest known diamond in the world," the reality 
of which is doubted by several writers and travellers. 
Mr. Edwin R Streeter, in his recent work on "Precious 
Stones and Gems,'' however, considers the history of 
this diamond to be sufficiently established for record 
as a genuine stone. Models of it exist, and many 
travellers have seen it. Several battles have been 
waged for its permanent possession, and it is said 
that the Governor of Batavia offered 150,000 
dollars and two ships of war for it. The Rajah, 
in declining the offer, is reported to have replied 
that he would not part with it on any terms, 
believing that it is a talisman upon the possession of 
which depends his happiness and that of his family. 



50 THS NSW CETLON. 

Of more genuine interest than a crystal representation 
of this questionable diamond, were some fine speci- 
mens of Bomean pearls, imported during the present 
year from the North Borneo Seas, which Mr. Streeter 
showed me. One of these is still to be seen at Bond 
Street, in its original condition, attached to the shell; 
another has gone to Messrs. Tiffany, of New York. The 
favourite pearl fisheries of the ancients were in the 
Persian Gulf, the Indian Ocean, the Bed Sea, and on 
the Coromandel coast. The PhcBnicians traded with 
Ceylon for pearls. In 1640 the Dutch seized the 
Ceylon fisheries, and in 1798 the English, having 
come into possession of the island, obtained in one 
year a profit of £140,000 on the fishery. This success 
was, however, the result of giving the beds a long 
rest. The yearly harvest of pearls is estimated at 
£350,000. The merchants engaged in the trade are 
chiefly Indian, Arabian, and Persian. The pearls 
found in the Persian Seas are sent by way of Muscat 
to Bombay, and on to China, "which adds to its 
stores many pearls from the Sooloo Archipelago, 
lying between Borneo and Mindanao.'^ Philip IV. of 
Spain had a pearl weighing 160 carats. It came from 
India, and is now in the possession of Princess 
Youssopoff, and its value to-day is £16,000. The 
Shah of Persians famous pearl, more than an inch in 
diameter, is valued at £64,000, and the Sultan of 



LANDS OF FEBPSrUAL SUMKEB. 51 

Muscat has one worth £32,000. Within the past few 
years many valuable pearls have been ''in the 
market/' A very fine white pearl was sold in London 
a few years ago for £2600. It weighed 116 grains. 
In 1878 another was imported weighing 114 grains, 
and, like the first-mentioned, of a peculiarly brilliant 
sheen. They were on view at the Paris Exhibition, 
and are now in the possession of the Baroness 
Alphonse Eothschild. ''No European regalia con- 
tain such a pair; they are thought to be unique.^' 
To students of Bomean gems, there is a far more 
interesting treasure on view, at Mr. Gk)rdon's place 
of business in Bond Street, than the pear-shaped 
model of the Bajah diamond. This is a genuine 
stone, which was purchased from a Chinaman 
about four years ago by the Bajah of Sarawak. 
Found at Landak, it weighs 70 carats, and is of the 
purest water. This exquisite gem is known as " The 
Star of Sarawak.'^ The tradition of Borneo as a 
diamond region, and the non-scientific character of 
some of the explorers, occasionally lead to serious dis- 
appointment. Recently a traveller shipped to Eng- 
land a stone which was to eclipse in splendour some 
of the most notable of known diamonds. It was 
pronounced by several amateur mineralogists to be a 
genuine diamond. The finder entered into a bargain 
with a certain traveller for its sale. Having insur'" ' 

B 2 



52 THE NEW CEYLON. 

it for £4000, they committed it to the care of the 
Peninsular and Oriental Company, who delivered it 
safely to a trusted friend in London. Submitted to 
an expert, the verdict was, " A pebble of no value." 
The doubt which rests upon the Rajah stone lies 
chiefly in the fact that the owner will not have it cut : 
and there is much reason to fear that it must be 
relegated to companionship with " the Braganza " of 
the Portuguese state jewels which remains in the 
rough, a reputed diamond of 1680 carats, the value 
of which, if genuine, might be set down at over 
£58,000,000 sterling. 

Mr. Crocker, a former Resident of Sarawak, whom 
I have previously quoted, read a paper at the Royal 
Geographical Society in February, 1881, in which he 
stated that the upper country of Borneo is rich in 
minerals, that gold is still worked by the Chinese, 
and diamonds* by the Malays. In Sarawak all their 

* " From the slovenly manner in which the diamonds are sought 
for by the Dayaks, they seldom collect them of a size exceeding 
three or four carats weight each. When rongh, the Landa diamond 
has a white or yellow huej bnt none are fomid of that inky and 
flinty tinge so valuable in some of the Goloonda diamonds. Bat that 
Landa does produce them of a very considerable size, the extensive 
and valuable specimens in Java, as well as the quantities annually 
sent to Batavia, will evince. The King of Matan is at this instant 
in possession of a diamond weighing 867 carats, the value of which, 
according to the old mode of calculation, would be 867x367x2^ 
£269,378. The Sultan of Fontianak says, however, that a much 



LANDS OF PERPETUAL SUHMEB. 53 

minerals are leased to a company whose exports 
of antimony and quicksilver are thus set forth in 
their trade returns: ''Antimony exported from 1859 
to 1879, 25,000 tons, value more than one million 
dollars. Quicksilver exported from 1870 to 1879, 
15,000 flasks, value 717,500 dollars." Gambier and 
pepper are being cultivated with great success, and 
there is every prospect of a large influx of Chinese 
capitalists and coolies. Experiments have also been 
made from time to time in cultivating coffee, sugar, 
and tapioca. 

In an elaborate report on the distribution of the 
useful minerals in Sarawak, made in 1874 by Mr. 
A. Hart Everett, late Resident of Bintulu, Sarawak, 
and now an officer of the British North Borneo 
Company, he discredits somewhat the traditional 
belief in the vast deposits of the precious metals.* 

larger price was offered for it by the Dutch Government of Java. 
He refnsed, it is said, twenty-five laks of dollars, two sloops of rice, 
fifty pieces of cannon, and a hundred muskets. Several from twenty 
to thirty carats have been dug up. At Mompava there are said to 
be very rich copper mines ; but from want of population, a vigorous 
government, and scientific mineralogists, little is to be hoped from 
them at the present day. At Pulo Bongorong, near Borneo Proper, 
there is plenty of loadstone found." — J, Hunt, Esq,, to Sir Stamford 
Raffles, 1812. 

* Formerly, if the labours of the miners were rewarded by success, 
which is very uncertain, stones under four carats were their 
property; all of that size and upwards were claimed by the 



54 THE NEW CBTLOU". 

''It has been the oflfice of time/' he says, to 
dissipate "the golden fancies" which have always 
more or less existed in connection with the island 
of Borneo. '' Nevertheless,'* he adds, ''there does 

Fanambftham, then a tribntaiT' of Bantam, from the Sultan, of 
which State the former Dntch Company purchased this monoplj or 
royalty, for 50,000 dollars. At present, by treaty with the Panam- 
baham, all the stones must be delivered to Gk>yemment at twenty per 
oent. below the market price which is ascertained by appraise, 
ment on the spot, the necessary advances being of coarse first 
made to miners by Government. The small stones are sold at 
Fontianak, and the large ones, for which there are no pnrchasers 
there, are disposed of at Batavia^ and the profits equally divided 
between Government and the Fanambaham. There is every reason 
to believe that in the first year and a half snoceeding this 
arrangement, which was made in the middle of 1823, these 
amounted to abont 19,000 guldens, 390 carats having been delivered 
to the agents of Government in the latter part of 1823, and 1900 in 
1824, the cost of which must have been 33,000 guldens, and the 
proceeds 62,000. The existing regulations are no doubt as often 
evaded as that mentioned above must have been, and if such be the 
case, 2290 carats are less than the actual produce of the period in 
question. The number of persons employed during it is unknown, 
so that no idea can be formed of the profit on mining speculations. 
The deliveries of 1825 and 1826 were less than that of 1824, and will 
be still less this year. Government not advancing to an equal extent, 
in consequence partly of an outstanding balance against the miners, 
and partly to the disinclination of the latter to receive copper money. 
Some natives are of opinion that the veins are not so productive 
as in former times ; others, making due allowance for the decrease 
occasioned by the measures of Government, say that they are not 
worked with equal zeal. 

Gold is found in almost every part of the Besidency, also in the 
Ar^ng strata, and takes many names, being invariably designated by 



LANDS 07 PERPETUAL SUMMEK. 55 

exist a certain amount of solid foundation for the 
idea that Borneo is well furnished with the useful 
metals and minerals/' Upon the subject of "the 
mineral resources of Borneo as a whole/' he describes 
some of the leading geological features of the island, 
and gives instances of gold, coal, diamonds, iron, aud 
cinnabar, beiug found not only in, but beyond the 
limits of Eajah Brooke's territory. '^ Gold," he says, 
*' occurs in the form of fine sand or minute flattened 
plates in alluvial deposits over a great part of 
Sarawak." Washings are carried on in various 
districts by Chinese and Malays, but in a very 
inefficient and superficial way. Nuggets are of 

the name of the place where it is procured. The gold of Sintang, 
Sangao, and Landak, are abont nine tonch; of Mnntnhari abont 
eight and a half, that of Mandor a shade below eight; these are 
places nnder Fontianak. That foand at Mantrada under Mampawa 
is abont eight tonch ; and nnder Sambas, gold of nine tonch is 
f onnd ; at Sapan of eight ; and eight and a half at Larak ; of eight 
at Siminis; and of seven and a half at Salakao. The mines are 
worked in a simUiar manner to those already described, and the 
Ar^ng cleaned in the dnlan, in the centre of which the gold, from 
its greater grayitj, is collected. There are no data for ascertaining 
the amount produced, or the number of persons employed. The 
price at the principal ports may be taken at about two dollars and 
ninety cents per touch; or say, twenty-six Spanish dollars for 
Sintang gold of nine touch. The Sultan of Sambas has in his 
possession a lump weighing twelve-and-a-half bunkals, and says he 
has seen some which weighed twenty-five. — Notes on "Residency of 
the North-west Coast of Borneo** in Singwgore Chronicle, October 6th, 
■cwki November, 1827. 



56 THE NEW CEYLON. 

rare occurrence, but "if the Chinese are to be 
credited; some of very considerable weight have been 
met with in the adjacent Sambas district/' As to 
the annual produce of gold in the territory of Sarawak^ 
the data for making an approximate calculation of the 
total amount produced is unreliable. *' Mr. Low, of 
Labuan — ^whose work, in spite of its being somewhat 
out of date, is the most trustworthy yet written on 
Sarawak — places the yearly export of gold from the 
territory at 7000 ounces. Although nominally all 
gold carried out of the country must be declared, as 
much leaves Sarawak in a private way as is declared 
to the export oflBice in Kuching, while a still more 
considerable portion of annual output is bought up 
and remains in the country without in any way 
showing in the trade returns/' On the whole, the 
opinion of Mr. Everett seems to be that whatever 
minerals may be awaiting discovery in Sarawak, 
" their importance can only be relative or comparative 
with that of the coal-fields of North-west Borneo. 



ni. 

BRITISH NORTH BORNEO OR SABAH. 

Geographioal Situation — Harbonrs in which the British Fleet can 
ride at anchor — Mountains and Biyers — ^Village life and Local 
Agriculture — Soils and Climate — Trade and Barter — ^Tropical 
Products — ^Anglo-Bomean Homes and Gardens — Fruits and 
Flowers — Crocodile Stories — Opportunities of Sport — Elephants 
and Khinoceros — Familiar and Curious Fish — The Sun-bird — 
Pearls and Pearl Fisheries — A Dramatic Story — The Natives- 
Cessation of Piracy. 

I. 

A BOUGH line drawn across the map from the Kimanis 
Eiver on the north-west coast to the Sibuco River 
on the east coast, will indicate the territory hitherto 
called Sabah, now to be better known in the future as 
British North Borneo. This territorial possession is 
in shape that of an irregular triangle, two sides of 
it washed by the sea, the apex going out into the 
ocean in picturesque splendour. A coast-line of 
more than 500 miles in extent, every part of the 
country has a seaboard, the commercial advantage of 
which need not be dwelt upon. No other territory 



58 THE NEW CEYLON. 

in Borneo is so favourably placed either on the score 
of climate, facilities of trade, or in regard to the 
possibilities of development. Situated nearly midway 
between Singapore and Hong Kong, it is in immediate 
proximity to the Palawan Passage, which is a great 
ocean route for vessels trading to China and Japan. 

The finest harbours in all the coasts of Borneo 
are Gaya Bay, Ambong, and Abai-XJsukan Bay on 
the west; Kudat on the north, and Sandakan Harbours 
on the east coast. They are indicated in the map 
accompanying these brief historic notes, and are also 
shown in detail on separate charts. 

Gaya Bay will bear comparison with any harbour 
in the China Seas. Having one entrance capable of 
easy defence, and with accessible coal beds, its 
commanding position gives it special strategical im- 
portance. The entire fleet of Great Britain might 
ride at anchor in its deep and extensive waters. It is 
more than probable that the British authorities have 
taken note of this important fact. Sandakan, having 
like Gaya Bay an entrance that especially lends itself 
to easy defence, is a sheet of deep water, fifteen miles 
long by five miles broad. It has many excellent 
anchorages that afford perfect shelter in either mon- 
soon for the largest ships. The Admiralty have 
published a chart of this harbour, and there is no 
.doubt that Sandakan will eventually become the 



BEITISH NORTH BORNEO OR SABAH. 59 

great rendezvous of trade of the Sooloo and New 
€hiinea Seas, as well as a place of call for vessels 
boand to and from Australia. 

No more remarkable example of the unexplored 
<;liaracter of the country can well be mentioned than 
the fact that one of its finest harbours has only 
just been discovered. Commander Johnstone, of 
H.M.S. Egeria^ sent home the first notification of the 
existence of Kudat in August, 1881, and it now appears 
for the first time on the Admiralty chart. The 
Governor of the new territory, Mr. Treacher, with 
Mr. Everett and Mr. Witti, visited it on the 25th of 
August in the Company's launch Enterprise^ and it 
has been decided to establish a Eesidency in Marudu 
Bay, overlooking the newly-discovered harbour. 
''Anyone entering Kudat,'' says a despatch dated 
August 29th, 1881, ''cannot fail to be struck 
with the commodiousness of the harbour, and the 
eligibility of the site selected for the future town. 
I am assured that there is '6 of a square mile of 
deep-water anchorage, that is, with a depth of not 
under five fathoms at low water. Scarcely any clear- 
ing will be required on the proposed town site for 
some time, and there will therefore be probably less 
sickness to contend with at first than is usually to be 
expected on opening a new station. Water will be 
obtained by means of wells as at Labuan and Alai. 



60 THE NEW CEYLON. 

Mr. Everett, in his report on harbours, has reported 
highly in favour of Kudat. A harbour on the main- 
land has many advantages over one on a detached 
island, since, in addition to the transit trade it 
attracts, there is that of the country at its back to 
help to swell its returns of imports and exports. In tho 
case of Kudat this will in all probability be of con- 
siderable importance, for Mr. Witti states the country 
to abound in gutta-percha, indiarubber, ebony, etc., 
and he seems to have little doubt from the informa- 
tion he has obtained from natives, that coal exists in 
Marudu Bay. He also states that there is a large 
and tractable Dusun population. Sir Stamford Raffles 
has recorded his opinion to the effect that any settle- 
ment by Europeans on an island ofE Borneo would be 
a failure, and he recommended Marudu Bay as the 
best locality for a European settlement. Mr. Everett 
remarks : ' Kudat is so situated that it would inevit- 
ably come, in time, to intercept all the trade from 
Palawan, Balabac, Cagayan Sulu, and Sulu, that now 
passes westward through the Malawali passage/ and 
he thinks it possible that much of the trade of the 
Southern Philippines may find its way hither in course 
of time.^' 

The other geographical features of British North 
Borneo are no less interesting and important than 
these, which include grand natural bays, alike valuable 



BRITISH KOBTH BOENEO OB SABAH. 61 

as trading stations and harbours of refuge. The 
country is traversed by a mountain range averaging 
from 5000 to 8000 feet in height, and rising to 
the noble altitude of 13,700 feet, crowned in lofty 
grandeur by Kina Balu, deemed by the natives 
sacred, as are the heights of Mount Shasta by 
the American Indians in California, and Fusiyama 
in Japan. Many picturesque spurs branch ofE 
from this mountainous backbone of the country, 
terminating in rich undulating hills, watered by 
stream and torrent, diversified by plain and forest, 
rich in tropical verdure, and presenting many possi- 
bilities of mineral treasures; besides adding to the 
advantages of agricultural and other operations in a 
hot country the cooling breezes of high lands, that go 
down in rush of torrent and rocky majesty to the 
open seas. Among the many rivers of British North 
Borneo are the Paitan, Sugut, Sibuco, and Kina- 
batangan. The latter forms a perfect waterway from 
the east coast into the heart of the country, and 
can be navigated for 200 miles with small steamers. 

The spurs and slopes of Kina Balu are peculiarly fitted 
for growing cofEee, tea, and cinchona; while the rich 
plains that mark the course of the Kinabatangan and 
other rivers lend themselves to the culture of indigo, 
tobacco, cotton, rice, and the other well-known tropical 
products. Such villages as the traveller meets with 



62 THE KEW CETLOV. 

on excursions in the interior are fed and maintained 
by agriculture, the successful features of which belongs 
to the natural fertility of the soil rather than to the 
science of the native farmer. Take for example the 
little village of Tamparulie on the banks of the 
Tawaran. En route from Labuan to make the ascent 
of the Kina Balu mountains^ you pass this native 
hamlet. You cross a plain of rice, bananas, cocoanut- 
trees, and other luxuriant vegetation. You see the 
native cultivator at work, his rude plough drawn by 
buffaloes, flocks of white padi birds sailing aloft, 
or a few solitary cranes adding an oriental touch to 
the picture. You halt on the river-bank amidst 
tropical groves, here and there relieved by neatly-kept 
gardens fenced down to the water's edge, and con- 
taining plentiful supplies of sweet potatoes, cucumbers, 
maize, and kaladi. Farther on, at Kolawat (a native 
village backed by a grove of plumed palms, the betel- 
nut variety, yellow with fruit) you will find a village 
built on poles in a morass, with herds of swine and 
flocks of tame bees as part of the local treasures. 

Along the valleys that go upwards to the hills you 
pass straggling huts and bamboo cottages surrounded 
by irrigated patches of rice, with maize and sweet 
potatoes growing nearest the houses, and in many 
cases clumps of bananas at the very doorways. Now 
and then you meet natives laden with baskets of 



BBITISH NOSTH BOSNEO OB SABAH. 63 

tobacco and beeswax going towards the coast on 
trading expeditions; the gentle manners of the 
people, their means and mode of life, being charac- 
terised by great simplicity. While you thus at 
intervals come upon evidences of village life and 
agricultural work, you may travel hundreds of miles 
without any other signs of life than those belonging 
to '' the forest primeval,'' Nature's splendid legacy of 
fertile soil and umbrageous woods being literally given 
over to the orang-outang and other strange examples of 
animal life. You may steam along the Kinabatangan 
Biver for a hundred miles at a stretch without seeing 
a human being, though all the time you are passing 
through a country presenting unrivalled opportunities 
for the cultivation of rice, sago, sugar-cane, tobacco, 
pepper, and other tropical merchandise. Face to face 
with these scenes of "luxurious nature," the European 
traveller cannot fail to regret that such "lands 
of plenty " have remained so long unavailable for the / ^^ ' 
stimulating exercise of capital and labour and the p- 
useful arts of civilisation. 

n, 

Authoritative reports, surveys^ by experts, and 
scientific analyses of soils demonstrate beyond dis- 
pute that British North Borneo offers advantages to 
planters and colonists not surpassed by the most 



64 THB NEW CBTLON. 

favoured and popular countries of the tropics. 
Experienced and observant travellers have indeed 
spoken of it as '' The New Ceylon/' * 

It will be interesting to set forth somewhat in 
detail the vegetable productions of commercial value 
which are indigenous to the soil and growing wild in 
the forests. Indiarubber and gutta-percha abound in 
great plenty, the latter trees growing to the height of 
nearly a hundred feet and being upwards of six feet 
round the trunk. The natives do a small trade in 
these commodities with Labuan and other merchants. 
The Gonzogin people prefer in exchange for this 
produce brass of any shape or kind, while, as a rule, 
coloured cloths, salt, and pottery are the favourite 

* "After weigbing the advantages and disadvantages of opening a 
coffee estate at Fappar^ I wonld not advise anyone to commence 
operations at Gallamuttai^ bat, as all Ceylon planters know, onr best 
districts are not twenty miles as the crow flies from onr worst, and 
the resemblance to Ceylon in the lie of the land, appearance of the 
jangle, soil, rainfall, temperatore, climate, and deg^ree of latitude, is 
so striking, that looking round in the jangle it is difficult to fancy 
yourself out of the Central or some parts of the Southern Province 
of that island. I therefore feel certain that valleys along the 
range can be found far superior to the valley of the Gallamuttai 
in soil and lie of the land which would grow good coffee and would 
pay. The difficulties I have mentioned of commencing planting in 
Borneo are precisely the same as those which planters met with in 
commencing in Ceylon (except the weakness of the government), and 
would soon be overcome. The Company will, I am sure, give every 
assistance towards getting labour and supplies, but pioneers in 
Borneo would have the great advantages of being able to choose 



BRITISH NOSTH BOENEO OB SABAH. 65 

material of barter. The camphor-tree is found in 
many parts of the country. Barus camphor (a difEerent 
species from the ordinary camphor of commerce) is 
highly valued by the Chinese for its medicinal pro- 
perties, and is readily purchased by them at fifteen 
dollars per pound. The middlemen, or traders dealing 
with the natives by exchange, find a good profit in com- 
pleting their sales for current coin. Along the entire 
east coast is an immense virgin forest. The woods 
are of infinite variety, suitable for every purpose of 
carpentry, building, or ornamental work, the most 
noteworthy being ebony, mallape, puon (for spars), 
and the bilian wood. The contiguity of rivers that 
run out to the great natural harbours of the country 
make it certain that British North Borneo can easily 



good land and leaye the bad, as, if thej were Ceylon planters, they 
conld tell one from the other, which the pioneers in Ceylon ^onld not 
do, as they had no practical experience of coffee, and many of them 
learnt to their cost that it did not always follow that where fine 
jungle stood good coffee would follow. I have confined my remarks 
to Coffea Arabica, but I cannot conclude without stating that aU 
along the banks of the Pappar Biyer, and in some of the jungle at 
low eleyations, i,e, up to 200 feet, I found the soil yery rich-looking, 
and I belieye the climate is suitable for Liberian coffee (which, how- 
eyer, is still hardly out of its experimental stage in the East), pepper, 
nutmegs, cocoa, sago, sugar, rice, tapioca, tobacco, in fact all products 
that flourish in the Malayan Archipelago." — Beport on North 'Borneo, 
hy T. 8. Dohree, Esq,, of Ceylon, made on behalf of several Ceylon 
merchants and planters, October, 1878. 



66 THE NEW CEYLON. 

compete for the large and growing demand of China 
and Japan for timber of any description. 

The articles in regular cultivation by the natives 
are rice, millet, tapioca, Indian com, sugar-cane, 
tobacco, cotton, pepper, and several kinds of tropical 
vegetables. Sugar-cane attains in some districts to 
an extraordinary height and thickness. It is mostly 
grown for immediate consumption. While one tribe 
of natives crush their cane, another use it in the 
shape of molasses, calling it " paha,'' the name they 
give to honey. Cotton is grown in the interior, and 
samples of it show a long fine staple. It is not 
yet an article of export, the natives manufacturing it 
in a primitive way into yam for their own limited use. 
The women also make a rough cloth from the fibre of 
the " lambra,'' a broad-leaved weed that is often seen 
growing in or near the scattered villages. Other 
curious textile fabrics are produced from the bark of a 
tree having leaves something like the bread-fruit. 
There are several localities where tobacco is grown, 
notably near the Ananam River in Gaya Bay, and, as 
in the case of cotton, it is sufficiently good to give full 
assurance of the adaptability of the climate and soil 
for the successful establishment of tobacco and cotton 
plantations; while land and labour for the erection 
and working of factories are procurable on terms that 
could not fail to encourage and nurture any suitable 



BBTTISH NOBTH BOBNEO OB SABAH, 67 

industry. Reliable travellers say that nowhere 
could pepper and rice grow more luxuriantly. The 
sago palm is the basis of a fair native trade^ the 
product finding a ready market at Labuan and Singa- 
pore. Cassia lignea is also exported. Cocoa-nuts^ 
the areca palm (yielding the betel-nut), together with 
pretty well every variety of fruit known in the tropics, 
such as mangoes, limes, oranges, bananas, and pine- 
apples, are found in many parts of the country. 
Battans are met with in especial abundance near the 
river-banks on the north-east coast They are superior 
to those of other countries, and ought to represent a 
very profitable trade in China, as well as in the 
European markets. 



in. 

While not regarding British North Borneo from 

the standpoint of a settlement for Europeans, except 

on the lines of a tropical colony, there are evidently 

spots among the Bornean hills where the tropical 

heats are so modified by mountain air that it would 

be not difficult to establish comfortable and pleasant 

Anglo-Bornean residences, with gardens combining 

familiar English vegetables and fruits with those 

of Eastern celebrity. Mr. Spenser St. John found at 

the village of Kiau that the thermometer never 

F 2 



68 THE NEW CEYLON. 

marked above 77^ during the day, and varied from 
66^ to 69° during the nights. The Marei Parei spur 
of the Bornean mountains he regarded as ofiEering a 
fine position for a sanitarium at any height between 
4000 and 5000 feet. In a tent pitched at about 
4700 feet the thermometer registered 75° (mean) in the 
midday shade, 56^ at 6 A.M., and 63° (mean) at 6 p.m. 
This, he says, would be a delightful climate in a well- 
built house. The day will no doubt come whon 
prosperous villages will be found in these salubrious 
regions. Returning to the passing fancy of our 
English house with its horticultural surroundings, it 
is worth while to mention that the garden stuffs of 
British North Borneo already include onions, garlic, 
pumpkins, beans, greens, and cucumbers. Mr. St. 
John says turnips, cabbage, and potatoes would also 
succeed if there were Europeans to attend to them. 
The sweet potato is indigenous to the country, 
and think of the fruits an English gardener could 
grow without glass! Mr. Burbidge, who is a great 
botanical authority, says the pine-apple of South 
America, the mango of India, the delicious little 
Chinese or mandarin orange, flourish here in the open 
air, yielding two crops in twelve months, while most 
of the other fruits may be obtained all the year round ; 
the forests of Borneo being the native home of the 
mangosteen, durian, tarippe, langsat, rambutan, and 



BRITISH NORTH BORNEO OE SABAH. 69 

jintawan.* A land of perpetual summer, the home of 
all that is beautiful in tropical life, its hills and dales 
radiant with rare plants and flowers, its glades and 
forests rich in the finest fruits of the earth, it is 
a happy thought of the latest student of its botanical 
and zoological treasures to collect and publish his 
notes under the suggestive title of '^The Gardens of 
the Sun/' 



IV. 

The animal productions of the country are both 
interesting and valuable. The natives carry on a 
considerable trade in that luxury of the Chinese, 
edible birdsnests. They are found in large quantities 
near the Kinabatangan Eiver and neighbouring pro- 
vinces, and also in other localities. They sell in 

* Apart from mere commercial estimation, except in so far as 
beauty of vegetation has a trade valne, British North Borneo is a 
natural botanical garden, in which the rarest examples of tropical 
life that are treasures at imperial Kew are the common plants and 
flowers of the country. The giant pitcher-plant of Kina Bain was 
discovered in 1881 by Mr. Low, her Majesty's Besident in Ferak, 
and with its allies is illustrated by Sir Joseph Hooker in the 
transactions of the LinnsDan Society. These strange plants, the 
search for which and the efforts to cultivate in European countries 
have occupied so much attention on the part of botanists, are only 
known to exist at Kina Balu. The list of Bomean ferns set forth by 
Mr. J. G. Barker is an interesting chapter in '*The Journal of 
Botany." 



70 THE NJJW CBTLON, 1 

China, according to quality, at from 40 dollars for 
common black to 8000 dollars per picul for the finest | 

white kinds. 

Beeswax is plentiful, the product of bees both ! 

tame and wild. A great trade might be done in 
hides and horns of cattle aod deer. On a recent 
trip up the Kinabatangan River, Mr. W. B. Pryer, 
the Company's Resident at Sandakan, noticed that j 

^ everywhere along the bank the tracks of buffaloes, 
deer, and pigs were so abundant as to form perfect 
roads. A fine breed of cattle, far superior to any in 
China, Saigon, Siam, or the Straits, is found largely 
distributed along the north-west coast, and might 
be utilised as an article of export. At Pinowautei, 
during one of his recent excursions, Mr. Witti 
found herds of buffaloes. They are reared in this 
locality, he was informed, only for local food. While 
Mr. Witti mentions these cattle grazing on what may 
be called flat meadows, Mr. Pryer speaks about the 
old deserted clearings near Blut and Seebongan as 
having fine glades of rich grass, in which places deer,, 
buffaloes, and pigs are abundant, the grass often 
being eaten quite short, and in some places almost 
^' puddled up '^ by cattle tracks. There is an almost 
total absence of beasts of prey, the feline species 
being represented by a small cheetah in the interior 
of the island. The crocodile is found in most of 



BRITISH NOETH BORNEO OE SABAH, 71 

the rivers, and various reports are current as to 
its character. Most travellers are careful to offer 
a note of warning against "promiscuous bathing ;^^ 
but Mr. Witti, during quite a recent excursion, 
says of the crocodiles that infest the Tandek Eiver 
that they are ]ust as tame as those of the Bengkoka 
are fierce. In the former river people bathe, 
literally" keeping company" with these formidable 
reptiles. He learnt, however, on the river-shore 
south of Tamalan, that the crocodiles thereabouts 
carry off dogs, pigs, and occasionally natives. 
Mr. Pryer, referring to his investigations on the 
Kinabatangan Eiver, says the crocodile is really a 
dangerous creature. It rarely ascends the river above 
Blut, not liking the shallows, but in the neighbourhood 
of Seebongan it is large and fierce, and has been 
known to attack large canoes. Hardly a month 
passes in which a native is not carried off. Mr. 
Pryer saw a crocodile hereabouts of enormous size. 
In these days, when crocodile hide has become 
popular for boots, portmanteaus, dressing-cases, and 
other articles, sport in the Bomean rivers might be 
combined with considerable profit. 

Elephants are numerous in the Company's territory 
of Sabah. A magnificent tusk was recently sent 
home to Mr. Dent by one of the Eesidents. In a 
letter from Mr. Pryer, from Elopura (Sandakan), dated 



72 THE NEW CEYLON. 

November 22nd, 1879, he says : " Should there be a 
shooting yacht at Singapore (as I hear there is), the 
following bag, by Torrie and his party, will interest 
them : Pour elephants, a stag, and a bison, and 
lots of elephants let off. This is close to the coast ; 
so that the shooting-party need never sleep away from 
the steamer/' In another recent letter he says : '^ I 
have an elephant's head here. Ibrahim, with four 
men, sallied out while three elephants were destroying 
their paddy. Ibrahim had his gun half filled with 
powder. Two of the elephants (tuskless) ran off, but 
the third faced about. Ibrahim blazed away, blew 
up his gun, was knocked down and stunned ; but he 
had sent a ball right into the brute's skull. The 
elephant charged right and left, nevertheless, right at 
the prostrate Ibrahim ; but the other four men fired 
a volley and killed it. The brute stood nine feet 
seven inches, and his tusks are thirty-two inches in 
length." 

The two-horned rhinoceros shares portions of the 
country with numerous kinds of deer and wild cattle. 
The orang-outang is, however, the most noted 
'^ denizen of the woods ; " but he has never been 
known to betray any of the savagery of Du Chaillu's 
gorillas. The Bomean '^ wild man " is quite harmless. 
Mr. Wallace has hunted him, shot him, and, captur- 
ing him alive, has tried to train him; but as yet 



f 



BRITISH NORTH BORNEO OR SABAH. 73 

no one has succeeded in pushing the Darwinian 
tieory into the practical illustration of an educated 
ape or even a useful one.* Old Bornean travellers, 
however, as we have seen, profess to have discovered 
a sort of degenerate man, who is possibly accepted 
by some philosophers as the missing link. 

There are snakes of various kinds in all parts of the 
island, but death from their bite is almost unknown. 
The most formidable reptile Mr. Burbidge saw during 

* ''The Malays of Samarinda catch the orangs near the small 
creeks and streams falling into the Mahakham near the town. They 
told me that the animals only come to the banks early in the 
morning, returning dnring the day to the jnngle. When they catch 
one aliye they sell it for three dollars to the Chinese, who feed the 
animals first on fmit and afterwards on rice, bnt never succeed in 
inducing them to live long in confinement. The captive animals 
seem capable of little or no activity, sitting for an hour or longer in 
the same position, so still that they could be photographed with the 
greatest ease, then slowly turning on one side and sleeping with the 
arm under the head. Their eyes are very keen, and give them a very 
intellectual and human-like appearance. The remarkable listlessness 
of the orangs in captivity made me extremely anxious to see them 
in their native woods and jungles, but I was never fortunate enough 
to see a single orang-utan alive or dead in any part of the interior, 
though the Dayaks of Long Wai said they were found farther north 
and on the Teweh ; I also heard that they were by no means rare in 
the Doesoen district, where they are called < keoe.* It is only among 
the Malays that they are known as orang-utan (literally * wild men*). 
Dr. Solomon Muller, in his ' Travels,' says the natives have distinct 
names for the sexes; the male being called 'Salamping,* and the 
female * Boekoe.' " — " The Head.Eunters of Borneo,** hy Carl Bock 
1881). 



74 THE NEW CEYLON. 

his travels was a sea-snake. The Hon. W. H. 
Treacher, the Governor, took him on an excursion 
from Labuan, and, near the Bomean shore at day- 
break, the native boatmen '^ pointed to a large sea- 
snake, lying full-length on the surface of the water 
in the sun. It was about eight feet long, and of a 
blue-black colour, barred with rich golden-yellow, 
the belly being dull white. Mr. Treacher fired at it 
with a shot-gun, striking it about the centre of its 
body ; and we could see quite plainly where the shot 
had ripped its skin. As it lay quite motionless for 
several seconds after the shot we inferred it to be 
dead ; but on the men paddling the boat towards it, 
it dived quite suddenly, and, as the water was clear 
and still, we could distinguish it at a great depth 
below the surface.'^ Several travellers in these 
regions have mentioned to me the wonderful clearness 
of the sea at various points, and also of the rivers, 
reminding one of the startling and unique examples 
of this kind which you meet with in the mountain 
lakes of California, where, sailing in a boat, you seem 
to be floating in space. 



Pish are plentiful and of many varieties. Eecently, 
while lying off the entrance to more than one of 
the rivers, her Majesty's gunboat Lapwing waa 



BRITISH NOETH BORNEO OR SABAH. 75 

plentifully supplied from '^the continual harvest 
of the seas/' Among the fish most relished were 
herrings and mackerel; not exactly like our own, 
but sufficiently similar to be eminently satisfactory. 
Opportunities of a large dried-fish trade with China 
present themselves at several points of the coast. 
Fresh-water fish are also abundant, and there are 
travellers who have enjoyed sport with rod and line in 
Bomean rivers that would have contented the most 
ardent followers of Izaak Walton. Trout are not only 
found in the streams, but with the British instinct of 
striking at flies. It is no exaggeration of terms to say 
that both land and water in Borneo present remarkable 
sporting attractions, as have indeed been exemplified 
by sketches sent home to the editor of The Field. 
The natives, while rowing you about on sea or river, 
usually run out a line at the stern of the boat, just 
as one does in the waters of the Upper Thames. The 
results are a little different. A monster of formidable 
growth is often the captive in the former case; a 
Thames jack of a dozen pounds is not so bad as the 
trophy of a long quiet pull above Henley. 

But while you are fishing in the waters of ^^ The 
New Ceylon '^ your gun need not be idle. The 
avifauna of Borneo is particularly rich. The famous 
pheasants of China are not more beautiful than those 
of Sabah, and its hornbills are said to be gigantic 



76 THE NEW CEYLON. 

compared with those of South America. There are 
many kinds of pigeons; paroquets are common and 
various ; the oriole, one of the showiest of tropical birds, 
is seen here to perfection ; a remarkable blackbird is 
common by the rivers, but more plentiful is a kingfisher 
of gorgeous plumage, Padi-birds, curlew, sandpipers, 
crows, eagles, ospreys, owls, bats, flying foxes, and a 
hundred other examples of winged creation are to be 
found in the hills and forests, on the plains and by 
the rivers, including the sun-bird, which may be 
called the humming-bird of the tropics. They are 
described as being ethereal, gay, and sprightly in 
their movements, flitting briskly from flower to flower, 
and assuming a thousand lovely and agreeable atti- 
tudes. As the sunbeams glitter on their bodies, they 
sparkle like so many precious stones, and exhibit at 
every turn a variety of bright and evanescent hues. 
As they hover round the honey-laden blossoms, they 
vibrate their tiny pinions so rapidly as to cause a 
slight whirring sound, but not so loud as the humming 
noise produced by the true humming-birds. Occa- 
sionally they may be seen clinging by their feet and 
tail, busily engaged in rifling the blossoms of the trees. 
They appear to be as common in Borneo as they are 
in Ceylon, where they are familiar in the gardens. They 
thrust their slender beaks into the flowers, and supple- 
ment "the nectar of flora'' with dainty meals off 



BRITISH. NOETH BOENBO OE SABAH. 77 

small insects and spiders. Sir James Emerson 
Tennent says of them: "If two happened to come 
to the same flower — and from their numbers this has 
often occurred — a battle always ensued, which ended 
in the vanquished bird retreating from the spot with 
shrill piping cries, while the conqueror would take up 
his position upon a flower or stem, and swinging his 
little body to and fro, till his coat of burnished steel 
gleamed and glistened in the sun, pour out his song of 
triumph/^ 

YI. 

In addition to other products, the sea yields mother- 
o*-pearl shells, seed pearls, bSche-de-mer or trepang, and 
tortoise shells ; and beyond these treasures pearls are 
a feature of Bornean trade, and the fisheries which 
have made Sooloo pearls famous are on the north-east 
coast. Mr. St. John, in his ^^ Life in the Forests of 
the Par East,'' says, while there are pearl-banks in 
the neighbourhood of Brunei and Labuan, the most 
remarkable are those found in the Sooloo seas, where 
they are more numerous than in any part of the 
world, and, " if properly developed, would, no doubt, 
be exceedingly productive/' The new'rulers of North 
Borneo or Sabah will, of course, see to this. At 
present the natives are content to dredge for them in 
a very primitive way, and in comparatively shallow 



78 THE NEW CEYLON. 

water they will dive for them, but not where there is 
anything like a depth of eight fathoms. '' I heard," 
says Mr. St. John, " of an Englishman endeavouring 
to send down men with a regular diving-helmet, but 
it was said he found that the current was so strong as 
to prevent the air passing down the tubes by flat- 
tening them ; but there must have been some mis- 
management." Occasionally there are magnificent 
pearls taken to Labuan for sale. Mr. St. John heard 
of a remarkably fine one, and well shaped, which was 
purchased by the Hon. George Edwards, late governor 
of Labuan, " and was pronounced by all who saw it in 
the East as the best that had been brought under their 
notice. I have seen very handsome ones myself, some 
perfectly round, others slightly pear-shaped." A 
friend of mine recently brought several fine specimens 
from Borneo, and as previously intimated, specimens 
are to be seen in Bond Street, and no doubt at th© 
place of business of any of the great London dealers 
in gems and precious stones. Mr. St. John relates 
the following dramatic incident of the fisheries : 

"The natives tell a story of a certain chief, who was a great 
trader, and fond of sailing a praha from Snla to Manilla. Dnring 
the course of his voyages, he made the acquaintance of an English 
merchant, who had, on various occasions, trusted him with goods 
and treated him very liberally, not an unusual circumstance in the 
East. At last the chief took to gambling, and squandered aU his 
property, sold his houses, his slaves, and at last lost a large sum and 



BEITISH NOETH BOENBO OR SABAH. 79 

was obliged to place his wife and children in pawn as seenrity. The 
only property he had preserved was a favourite slave-boy, and with 
him he started in a small canoe to the oyster-banks. There they 
remained fishing, and had varied sncoess, but every day increasing 
the amount in the hollow bamboo in which the natives generally 
keep their small seed pearls. In the evenings the chief would talk 
over the tales they had heard from other fishermen, who delighted 
to recount the story of the vast pearl which was seen by the men of 
old, and actually brought in its oyster into a canoe, but had slipped 
from the fingers of the incautious captor. The natives declare that 
the oysters containing the largest pearls are always open, until you 
approach them, and that by cautiously peering into the water they 
may be seen. 

" One day the slave-boy was preparing to dive, when he started 
back, touched his master's sleeve, and with signs of great emotion 
j)ointed into the water; he could not speak. The chief looked, 
and there, seven fathoms below them, lay an oyster, with an 
enormous pearl distinctly visible. Without a moment's reflection he 
plunged in, and dived with such skill and speed that he reached the 
shell before it closed, and actually had his fingers caught in it. He 
thrust hand and shell into his bosom, and, being an expert swimmer, 
rose quickly to the surface, and was helped into the boat by his 
anxious follower. Q^hey then forced open the oyster, and there lay a 
pearl, unsurpassed in size, and of an extraordinary shape. They 
pulled back to Sugh, and selling all his smaller pearls, the chief 
redeemed his wife and children, and set sail for Manilla. There he 
went to the house of his English friend and said : * Take this pearl, 
•clear off my debt, give me what you like in return, I shall be satis- 
fied.' The merchant took the pearl, gave him what he considered its 
-value, at all events, enough to make Sulu ring with his generosity, 
and sent the pearl to China, but what became of it afterwards I 
could never distinctly trace, but I learned that a pearl in Bengal, 
which was called there the 'Mermaid,' originally came from China; 
and as the one found in Sulu was said to be shaped like a woman's 
bvLBtf it is probably the same." 

It is a general superstition throughout tlie far East^ 



80 THE NEW CEYLON. 

that if you place pearls in a packet by themselves 
they will gradually decrease in number until they finally 
disappear, but that if you add to them a few grains 
of rice the treasure is safe. The same belief holds as 
to gold. In the case of pearls the rice is even supposed 
to increase their number. 

VII. 

British North Borneo is at present but thinly popu- 
lated. In the provinces of Emanis, Benoni, and Pappar, 
on the north-west coast and as far as Gaya Bay, the 
inhabitants of the villages on the rivers and near the 
seashore are principally of Malay origin, intermixed 
with a few Bajus and descendants of the natives of 
neighbouring islands. From the Mengkabong Eiver, 
on the west coast above Gaya Bay, as far as Marudu 
Bay in the north, all the villages near the sea are 
inhabited by Bajus and Llanuns, the latter having 
originally come from the island of Magindanao, the 
southernmost of the Philippine group. Prom Marudu 
Bay, in a southerly direction along the seashore of the 
east coast, and as far as Cape Unsang, but few villages 
are met with, and these are principally inhabited by 
natives from the Sooloo Islands or Bajus, inter- 
spersed with a few traders of Indian, Chinese, or 
Arabic origin. All these different races profess the 
Mahometan religion. 



BRITISH NORTH BORNEO OB SABAH. 81 

The interior of the country is inhabited by the de- 
scendants of the aboriginal population, called variously 
Muruts, Dusuns, or Ida'an, and corresponding in 
their external appearance in many respects to the 
Dayaks of Sarawak and the southern parts of Borneo, 
although the colour of their skin is much lighter 
than that of any other natives in the island, owing 
possibly to the large admixture of Chinese blood 
in former centuries, when the northern part of 
Borneo is said to have been largely inhabited by 
Chinese colonists. The Ida^an are by nature peaceful 
and docile, and by habit essentially agriculturists. 
They raise rice, sweet potatoes, yams, Indian corn, 
sugar-cane, tapioca, tobacco, and cotton, though the 
latter only in certain districts, and the former only 
sufficient for their own consumption, and for pro- 
curing in the way of barter such articles of foreign 
manufacture as they require to supply their simple 
wants. They are the only natives of the country 
known to use a plough, and this of very primitive 
construction. Here and there agricultural implements 
of a rough kind are used ; and, as nothing of the sort 
is found in the south of Borneo, they are no doubt 
remnants of that Chinese civilisation which is alluded 
to in the earlier pages of the present work. There 
can be no doubt that under the new rulers the 
Chinese will soon be tempted back again to contribute 



), 



82 THE NEW CEYLON, 

their labours and ingenuity towards the development 
of this long-neglected land of sun and flowers. 

Says Mr. St. John : ^^ I first saw the natives plough- 
ing in the Tampassuk; their plough is very simple, 
and is constructed entirely of wood ; it serves rather 
to scratch the land than really to turn it over. The 
plough was drawn by a bufPalo, and its action was 
the same as if a pointed stick had been dragged 
through the land to the depth of about four inches. 
After ploughing, they use a rough harrow. In the 
Tawaran they ploughed better, the earth being 
partially turned over to the depth of about six 
inches. The Ida'an have divided the land into square 
fields with narrow banks between them, and each 
division being as much private property as English 
land, is considered very valuable, and the banks are 
made to keep in the water. Their crops are said 
to be very plentiful." These natives use a bamboo 
sledge drawn by bufialoes to take their goods to 
market. They supply their own district with to- 
bacco. They are of settled habits, and their villages 
peaceful. 

It is estimated that the native population in Sabah 
counts up about 150,000. Piracy in former times was 
rife along the coast of Borneo, and many of the 
most dreaded piratical tribes of the Eastern Seas had 
their fortified strongholds there, causing the island 



BRITISH NOETH BOENBO OE SABAH, 83 

to be shunned and ayoided by the navigators of 
earlier days. All this is now changed since Admiral 
Sir Thomas Cochrane, with the British fleet under his 
command, bombarded and took the town of Brunei, 
and destroyed the powerful piratical settlements on 
the Tampassuk and Pandassan Eivers, and in Marudu 
Bay; and since Captain (now Admiral) Sir Henry 
Keppel, in H.M/s ships Bido and Mceander, assisted 
by Sir James Brooke, performed similar and equally 
efficient service against the fleets of sea rovers in- 
festing the seaboard of Sarawak and the southern 
part of Borneo Proper.* Ever since that time the 
piratical fleets of former days have entirely disap- 
peared. Practically speaking, piracy has ceased to 
exist on the north-west coast, while on the east 
coast occasional piratical attacks by Sooloo or Balignini 
pirates on native coasting craft are still reported, 
although they are not of very frequent occurrence. 
Steamers and European sailing vessels navigate those 
seas in perfect safety, and it may be asserted without 
exaggeration that more piracies are committed at the 
present day on the much-frequented coast of China, in 
the immediate vicinity of British settlements, than in 
the isolated waters of Borneo. 

* For a graphic and complete description of the operations of 
H.M.S. Dido, see Admiral Sir Henry Keppel's "Expedition to 
Borneo/' two vols. (Chapman and Hall). 

G 2 



IV. 
STRANGERS AMONG STRANGE PEOPLE. 

Beoent Expeditions and Disooveries in Sabah — ^Forest and Stream — 
A Novel Mode of Travel — ^From Fappar to Konquot — Mr. Dobree 
on Goffee-plantingf — Hunting the Rhinoceros — Slavery — Mr. 
Witti's Overland Journey from Marudu Bay to Pappar— Dis- 
covery of a New Oil — ^Dasun Girls in Danger — Singular Toilettes — 
Native Weapons — Head-hunting — Buffaloes — The First White 
Men in Tambuan — ^Notes on the Fappar Biver — Geographical 
Fables— Native Canards — Men and Women with Tails— English 
and other Maritime Powers in the Eastern Seas — Present and 
Future of the Indian Axchipelago—European Capital and 
Chinese Labour. 

I. 

If Borneo* is a " strange and unknown land/' Sabah, 
the territory of the British North Borneo Company, 
is the least explored portion of this remarkable 
island. For nearly two centuries it has remained a geo- 
graphical mystery, a fabled treasure-house, a region 

• "Borneo and Celebes, and indeed the greater portion of the 
islands of the Malayan Archipelago, are still unknown, and the 
apathy of two centuries still reigns supreme with the enlightened 
people of England ; whilst they willingly make the most expensive 
efforts favourable to science, commerce, or Christianity in other 
quarters, the locality which eminently combines these three objects 



STfiAKGEBS AMONG STRANGE PEOPLE. 85 

of tropical wonders, the paradise of botanists, a realm 
of strange and traditional romance. Even the natives 
of other parts of Borneo, notably at Sarawak, regard 

is alone neglected and alone nnoared for. It has nnf ortnnately been 
the i&te of our Indian possessions to have laboured under the pre. 
jadice and contempt of a large portion of the well-bred oommoniiy. 
Whilst the folly of fashion requires an acquaintance with the deserts 
of Af rica, and a most ardent thirst for a knowledge of the usages of 
Timbuctoo, it at the same time justifies the most profound ignorance 
of all matters concerned with the government and geography of our 
Tast acquisitions in Hindostan. The Indian Archipelago has fully 
shared this neglect ; and even the tender philanthropy of the present 
day, which originates such multifarious schemes for the amelioration 
of doubtful evils, which shudders at the prolongation of apprentice- 
ship for a single year in the West, is blind to the existence of slavery 
in its worst and most aggravated form in the East. Not a single 
prospectus is spread abroad, not a single voice is upraised to relieve 
the darkness of Paganism and the horrors of the eastern slave trade. 
Whilst the trumpet-tongue of many an orator excites thousands to 
the rational and charitable objects of converting the Jews and re- 
claiming the gipsies ; whilst the admirable exertions of missionary 
enterprise in the Ausonian climes of the South Sea have invested 
them with worldly power as well as religious influence j whilst we 
admire the torrent of devotional and philosophical exertion, we can- 
not help deploring that the zeal and attention of the leaders of these 
charitable crusades have never been directed to the countries under 
consideration. These unhappy countries have failed to rouse attention 
or excite commiseration ; and as they sink lower and lower, they afford 
a striking proof how civilisation may be dashed, and how the purest 
and richest lands under the sun may be degraded and brutalised by a 
continued course of oppression and misrule. It is under these cir- 
cumstances that I have considered individual exertion may be nse- 
f ally applied to rouse the zeal of slumbering philanthropy, and to 
lead the way to an increased knowledge of the Indian Archipelago." — 
Eajah Brooke^ in KeppeVa " Eaypedition to Borneo," 



86 THE NEW CEYLON. 

the unfamiliar districts of the north with awe and 
superstition. They have on several occasions assembled 
to gaze with admiration upon pioneers and explorers 
setting out for the countries that lie in the splendid 
shadows of Eina Bala. 

It is only within the past few years and under the 
auspices of the Company that Sabah has been ex- 
plored at any distance from the coast. In the year 
1878, Mr. T. S. Dobree, a distinguished planter of 
Ceylon, visited the new cession of North Borneo on 
behalf of several planters and merchants connected 
with Ceylon, for the purpose of ascertaining if the 
land is suitable for the cultivation of cofEee. His 
report is eminently favourable. I propose to strip it 
as much as possible of mere technicalities, and deal 
with those portions which are most likely to interest 
the general reader. There can be nothing more 
interesting in the way of travel than the first 
impressions of an explorer in a new country; while 
the ancient books of our first adventurers who sailed 
through unmapped seas to equally unrecorded countries 
are amongst our most fascinating literature. The 
diaries of Stanley, Speke, Gh'ant, Burton, and other 
modern travellers have the special charm of a current 
realism. They deal with men and things that are 
known to exist to-day, with countries which are open 
to our own personal investigation as they were to 



STRANGERS AMONG STRANGE PEOPLE. 87 

theirs; and their narratives are not open to that 
suspicion of '^ over-colour ^^ which belongs to some of 
those early histories which criticism has relegated to 
the literary company of romances under the cynical 
title of ''Travellers' Tales/' 

The reports and letters which I propose to examine 
and discuss with the reader were not prepared for 
publication. They are semi-official documents, written 
chiefly for the edification of business men. Neverthe- 
less, here and there we shall come upon incidents 
and episodes of travel which are of peculiar interest. 
As plain statements of fact they have a special value 
of their own. Mr. Dobree travelled through the 
forest lands on the banks of the Rivers Galamuti and 
Leemai^ situated thirty-five miles south of Pappar 
village, which, with the other points mentioned in 
this and previous chapters, will be found duly marked 
in the accompanying maps. He found the Pappar 
River lined with cocoa-nuts and roughly-cultivated 
patches of sugar-cane, hiU-paddy, mango, plantain, 
and other products. He began his journey up the 
river on the 23rd of June, and was on the banks of 
the Galamuti on the 28th. Two days later he sent 
ofE the baggage in a canoe to Pappar, and started with 
Tahatan, his guide, on buffaloes, as he wanted to see 
the land away from the banks of the river. He does 
not recommend this as a comfortable way of travelling. 



88 r THE NEW CEYLON. 

but he says it is better than walking if you are going 
anywhere on the plains where a canoe is not available. 
The buffalo path cuts off the bends of the river, but 
crosses several tributaries, which the buffaloes have to 
swim, and until you have learnt to stand on the 
animal's back while it is swimming (as his guide 
did) a buffalo mount is not pleasant. It is nevertheless 
much better than swimming yourself, and marching 
constantly for a mile at a time through swamps. 
They arrived at Pappar very stiff and wet/ the canoe 
having got there about an hour earlier. All the land 
Mr. Dobree rode through was more or less cultivated, 
and was said to be private property, chiefly belonging 
to the. Dusuns, who live in the country lying between 
Pappar and the hills, and do all the cultivation. The 
Malays live in Pappar, and are a thoroughly lazy, 
worthless set, their accomplishments loafing and 
paddling canoes. They trade a little with Brunei, and 
make a little cocoa-nut oil, but bum the fibre. 

Pappar village is a group of about twenty houses, 
all built on piles of the nibong palm, bamboo walls, 
and roofed with cadjans made of nipa palm-leaves ; 
the floors are also of split nibongs. The headman 
would give no assistance to the expedition. The 
Dusuns, on the other hand, were attentive, and ren- 
dered all the aid they could. From Pappar to 
Nygapass (with the exception of the build of the 



STBANQEBS AMONG STRANGE PEOPLE. 89 

houses and the language of the people) the surround- 
ings of scenery and vegetation are so similar to that 
of parts of the southern province of Ceylon, especially 
about Ginganga, that Mr. Dobree found it diJBicult to 
fancy himself anywhere else. 

Prom Pappar to Konquot (the place where Mr. 
Dobree commenced his march) it would be extremely 
difficult to construct a road that would be always 
passable, on account of the swampy nature of the 
ground, but the river is navigable and would be 
sufficient for all purposes. Prom Konquot to the 
hills a good road could easily be made along the 
bank of the Galamuti without any necessity for cross- 
ing the river once. 

" From what I heard in Singapore and Hong Kong, I feel quite 
confident that any number of Chinese coolies might be had for 
about fourteen rupees a-month, who would in a short time work as 
well as or better than our Tamil coolies. There would of course be 
trouble and expense in starting this, but no real difficulty. Chinese 
would have to be imported for curing and shipping the coffee at 
Fappar, as I don't believe the inhabitants of that- village would do 
anything. Chinese shops and banks would follow as soon as their 
necessity arose. All rice, and food of every kind, would have to be 
imported, also all requisites for estate purposes. The rice would 
come from Saigon at Bs. 2.50 a-bushel, other things from Singapore." 

After commending the country as a good field for 
coffee-planting, and dwelling upon its various advan- 
tages in the matter of land at a nominal rent, easy 
means of transport, and the plentiful supply of labour 



90 THE NEW CEYLON. 

to be had from China, Mr. Dobree mentions districts 
which he considers suitable for coffea arabica and also 
for Liberian coffee. Between Pappar and Benoni he 
says there is an enormous swampy forest of about 
8000 acres, all available and suitable for sago; and 
security for life and property being established, he 
says British North Borneo is "a splendid field for 
tropical agriculture.^' 

n. 

In his report on Sandakan Bay and the country 
round the harbour and up the Kinabatangan and 
Se-Gally Hood Eivers, Mr. Dobree says : " Sandakan 
Harbour is on the north-east corner of Borneo, and is 
about forty-eight hours' steam from Labuan. It is 
fifteen miles long and about five broad in the widest 
part, perfectly sheltered from all winds, and with 
plenty of water for the largest ships. The land all 
round the harbour is one dense forest, extending right 
up to Kina Balu on the north-east, and as far as the 
eye can reach on the west, south-east, and south. On 
the north side of the harbour the land is steep, rising 
to 600 feet in three hills near the mouth, in which 
coal has been found. On the south side it is flat, with 
rolling hills up to the height of about 200 feet. The 
forest, which is magnificent, especially on the south 
side, comes down to the water's edge, where there is a 



STRANGERS AMONG STRANGE PEOPLE. 91 

fringe of mangroves. There are three small native 
villages in the bay, German, Timbang, and Oopak; 
the largest, German, has about sixteen houses, all built 
on piles in the water, cadjan walls and roof. The 
inhabitants live on fish, with which the bay abounds, 
and rice, which they get by exchanging for beeswax, 
trepang (or sea-slug), birdsnests, shark-fins, seed 
pearls, gum damer, gutta, camphor, and rattans. The 
harbour abounds with fish." On the Se-Gally Hood 
Eiver, which he reached about the middle of July, 
1878, he found numerous tracks of elephants. 

'' On the 28th I went out below the village on the right bank, 
and abont two miles from the clearing found the fresh track of a 
rhinoceros, which I followed np, and, comiDg on him in abont a mile, 
killed in a mnd hole. I also saw a bear to-day, and tracks of wild 
cattle and pig ; the jangle was the same as I went through the day 
before, magnificent, and the soil rich and deep. I saw some 
camphor trees, and enormous mallapu and tappan trees; from the 
latter the natives generally get the honeycomb 5 the former, which 
is commonly eighteen feet in circumference above the roots, and 
150 feet to the branches, is used for canoes and planks. If a market 
could be found for this timber, any amount might be procured and 
cheaply floated down to the harbour." 

Slavery exists in some part of the country. While 
Mr. Dobree was at Sandakan early in 1878, three 
prahus came in with slaves for sale from the Sooloo 
groups of islands ; the slaves were in a wretched state 
of starvation, and several died of dysentery. One that 
died at Oopak was taken on shore, and the natives 



92 THB NEW CEYLON. 

practised with their krises on the dead body. On the 
whole, however, he thinks the slaves are very well 
treated while alive. They look as well fed and dressed 
as their masters. The poor creatures brought into the 
prahus had been suffering from a famine at Sooloo 
before they were caught. 

III. 

Mr. Dobree reported on the country about Tampassuk 
and Pandassau and the valley of the Ginambau. After 
a brief geographical sketch of the first-mentioned 
river, he says that recently he went to see one of the 
finest sugar estates in the Straits Settlements, and 
from what he saw there, he believes the soil at 
Tampassuk to be finer than that of the Straits, while 
the Tampassuk climate is certainly more suitable for 
the canes. It also appeared to him that the canes 
grown at Tampassuk by natives, without any care, 
were finer than those under cultivation elsewhere. 
There is a rapid about a mile above the Eesidency, 
which would give water-power for the necessary works. 

There are no powerful fighting tribes in any part of 
the Cession, as there are at Sarawak, so that there 
need be no difficulty or bloodshed in establishing 
order and security throughout the country. '^The 
few turbulent spirits will soon subside when they find 
there is an armed force ready and able to avenge 



STEANGEES AMONG STEANGB PEOPLE. 93 

any lawless act they may commit/* At Tampassuk, 
Pangeran, Sree Bajah Muda is the most influential 
chiefs and he has gone in heartily with the Company, 
and renders them every assistance in his power. 
Mr. Dobree heard at Labnan that several shops had 
sprung up at Pappar, which shows that confidence 
has been established among the natives. Since his 
visit to North Borneo nearly three years of steady 
exploration and administrative work have fully endorsed 
his belief, that the Company will have no difficulty 
in exercising its powers and bringing about a rule of 
security and order. 



IV. 

Mr. F. Witti, in the special employ of the Company, 
lately as Assistant Eesident at Tampassuk, and an ex- 
perienced pioneer, courageous in venturing upon un- 
known tracks, exploring strange rivers, visiting villages 
where the white man has never been seen, has made 
excursions into the heart of the territory, and has 
everywhere been received with kindness, not only 
by the headmen of villages, but by the natives 
themselves. Mr. "Witti, during 1880 and 1881, has 
transmitted to London several diaries of his official 
excursions. One of his earliest reports relates to 
a journey which he made to the oil shale at the 



94 THE NEW CEYLON. 

Sekuati River, and to an exploration overland from 
Marudu Bay to Pappar. Attended by guides and 
accompanied by a small party of coolies in the 
Company's employ, he left the Abai in the Residency's 
praha on November 4th, 1880. He went ashore 
at Agar Point and walked to the mouth of the 
Sekuati, which occupied about an hour. The white 
cliEEs shown on the Admiralty chart are situated 
at the common mouth of the Sekuati and the 
Kurnia Rivers. He found the banks of these rivers 
uninhabited. At Kurnia Creek, a cable's length 
from the mouth, he found oil emanating from the 
river-bed. In the sunlight the water was beautifully 
iridescent. When the tide was out on the following 
day he made holes where the oil was oozing out, 
and soon had for each small excavation a spring 
yielding oil and water; the surrounding soil was 
found highly bituminous for a surface extent of 
eighty square yards. To fill several jars with crude 
petroleum took merely the time required to raise 
it from the improvised well. He also filled two 
kerosine cases with the matrix itself. As he bored 
a couple of yards deep, he found that the proportion 
of bitumen evidently increased. The rock near the 
well is ordinary clay containing some hydrated oxide 
of iron; he cannot say on what that formation may 
rest, but in digging he now and then came on 



STRANGERS AMONG STRANGE PEOPLE. 95 

pieces of very massive lignite. Outside those eighty 
square yards no bitumen could be found, but he 
did not, however, carry his research far. The ebb- 
stream brought no indications of petroleum from 
up country, and people say this is the only outcrop 
known. The Ulanuns formerly used the solidified 
petroleum to give the bottoms of their prahus a 
coating. Examples of the oil were sent to England, 
and have since been chemically investigated with 
interesting results.* 

* " Notes on a Natubal Oil obtained from an ' Oil Shale ' in 
NoBTH Borneo. 

"EoYAL College op Chemistby, 
" South Kensington, August 9<?i, 1881. 

" The substance as secured, mixed with water, is a thick oil or 
bitnmen, with a not unpleasant odoar. 

" The thick oily portion was distilled in steam, that is, it was placed 
in a retort with water raised to 100° C, and steam from a small 
boiler forced in. When thus treated, a considerable quantity of 
oil came oyer with water, from which it was separated by means of 
a globe. When dried by calcic chloride and submitted to distillation, 
the greater part w£bs found to boil at about 230°-24i5** C, although 
some oil began to come over at 200°. The portion distilling between 
230°-240° was collected apart. It formed a beautiful clear oil, with 
a slight camphoric odour. It evaporates very slowly when exposed 
to the air, as might be expected from its high boiling-point. It is 
not affected by exposure to the atmosphere ; a sample placed in a 
porcelain dish retained its clearness for a long period. 

** It bums alone with a smoky, highly luminous flame, and with a 
lamp-wick gives a light of an intensity equal to the best petroleum. 



96 THE NEW CBTLON, 



On the 9tli of November Mr. Witti readied Layer- 
Layer, where the Saltan received him in full dress^ 
and was not easily persuaded to save his gunpowder. 
Various other chiefs came in. Amongst these lUanuns 

The mean oomposition of the distilled oil as determined hj nnmerons 

analyses was as follows : 

Carbon ...... 82 per cent. 

Hydrogen 10 „ 

Oxygen 8 „ 

100 

" It is not, however, a'petroleumof the ordinary kind (which are all 
hydrocarbons, that is, consist of carbon and hydrogen only), bat a 
mixture of at least two substances ; one of which is a petroleam, or 
paraffin oil, and the other an oxidised body which, as far as the 
examination of the small amount would allow of an opinion being 
formed, is of the nature of a terpene; in other words, closely related 
to the camphors. When larger quantities are operated upon, 
it will, no doubt, be found that the separation of these two 
bodies is an easy matter; and this separation will be going on 
at the place of natural occurrence; the thicker part, or tarry 
portion, containing the oxidised constituent of the oil. . . . 
From the presence of this oxidised substance it would seem that 
the geological formation is a recent one, probably tertiary. The 
strata at the point of occurrence will be found inclined several 
degrees, and cut through by a stream at a fault in the vicinity. If 
a boring be made in the beds there is little doubt that a quantity of 
oil would be obtained and could be easily worked. In some cases 
oils may be used direct for burning, but when distilled this oil wonld 
be very useful either as a luminant or for lubricating purposes. The 
sample operated on by us had probably been exposed for some time 



STBANGEBS AMONG STBANGE PEOPLB. 97 

every adult is, if not a slave, at least a Data. He 
noticed here half-a-dozen females weaving Sarong 
cloth. At night he pnt up at the '' big house '' of the 
village of Tigaman, where the natives, from being 
at first somewhat reserved, became very friendly. 
Thence he travelled by road and river to Moroli. En 
route he says : ^^ Emerging on the Sonchum Beach, we 
saw two females in the midst of tlie swollen stream 
struggling against being swept away; up to their 
waists in the water, heavy loads on their backs, a 
single weak prop, and the younger Dusun girl clinging 
to the elder one — and the roaring rapid but a few 
yards off. Thus we found them making an attempt 

to the air, as the percentage of light boiling oil was small. As 
obtained from a boring, the quantity of these light boiling bodies 
would, of course, be greater than where the oil has been exposed to 
eyaporation. It will be very easy to separate these lighter oils from 
those containing oxygen by distillation on a large scale, when also, 
probably, the oxidised body may be obtained in a solid form. In 
this case, if it be really a camphor, its value will be much greater 
than an ordinary petroleum. The best kinds of native or natural 
pitch are formed by the slow oxidation of these already partially- 
oxidised carbon-hydrogen bodies, and in this case there will be 
an accompanying natural deposit of this substance at the points of 
natural oxidation, and when distilled a useful pitch will be obtained 
as residual matter after the lighter oils have come over. Simple 
filtration through sand might be sufficient to separate the oil in a 
state pure enough for ordinary iUuminating purposes. 

"Feank Hatton, F.C.S., A.LO. 

"W. B. HODGKINSON, Ph.D." 
H 



98 THl VIW CEYLON. 

to ford the river, but ihej were extricated in tLmo 
The remarkable thing was that the poor girls in their 
predicament did not scream at all, although their 
becoming npset entailed drowning/' At Moroli he 
found the natives differed considerably in their cloth- 
ing and ornaments from those they left in the morning 
of the same day. 

" The men wear their head-dreie in form of a nightcap, and tie it 
down to the lower jaw, which makes them appear as if they had 
toothache. Then the men wear armlets, hip circles, earrings, and 
that awkward spiral round the neck, like the girls up Endat ; their 
ordinary dress, however, consists in the fig-leaf waist-cloth and 
nothing else. I noticed females who wore a jacket without sleeves, 
made of some fibre. Their complexion is remarkably light; but 
that cannot make ns sympathise with them, as they are rather a 
suspicions lot. I donbt if they wiU assist to-morrow morning in 
carrying our luggage, as the Kinoroms did, as far as this place S 
being paid for it of course." 

At Tolungan, made up of the villages of Sesapan 
and Bondo, the natives welcomed Mr. Witti and his 
companions. The men here tattoo themselves. 

" The effect produced is quite the same as frequently seen on a , 
stripped ' Jack.' I told our self-pridced friends here that white men 
do the same thing, for this and that reason — though I am not aware 
really of any reason at all $ however, I thus learnt that tattooing here 
distinguishes the men who have slain a foe in an inter-tribal war. 
There are five such warriors in the three houses of Bundo.. The 
ornament begins below the stomach and rises to the shoulders, like 
the skirb of a coat, then down the upper arms; here the two or 



STBANGEBS AMONG STBANGE PEOPLE. 99 

three parallel broad stripes end, and the fore-arm on its inner side 
shows a number of narrow stripes. These latter are more nnmeroas 
if the man.slayer be at the same time well-to-do." 

A few days* travel and Mr. Witti halted at Mituo, 
where Kina Balu was seen free from its load of 
cloads just long enough for a bearing : 276^, or say 
from Mituo, W. f N. The country here is much 
undulated — not one acre of level land ; and the high 
range bordering the eastern slopes of Kina Balu ap- 
pears still more distinct than from MorolL In this 
district he met another set of natives. They proved 
to be agreeable and friendly, and in appearance com- 
pared favourably with the Dusuns on the west coast, 
being a finer set of men. *^ They are not more savage 
either, although many of them are tattooed, and 
aU use the blowpipe (in Dusun 'sopok,' not 
'sampitan*), as their main weapon. To the one 
end of the blowpipe is always made fast a spear- 
blade. They never heard the report of a rifle; and 
believed us that it was much better never to become 
acquainted with firearms in anyway. I noticed the 
homespun of these people is not uniform bluish-gray, 
but striped with black.*' 



H 2 



100 THE NEW CEYLON. 



VI. 

About the 22nd of November, 1880, Mr. Witti's 
expedition reached Koligan. At various points en 
route there were numerous spring-traps set in the 
bush, which had no warning tablets about them but 
for the keen eye of the native Dusun. His guide 
pointed out how those traps are constantly set close 
by the footpath, which path itself is often quite 
obscured. Wild pigs and wild buffaloes abound in the 
forests, as also deer and other game ; and a travelling 
party could always procure some food in these regions. 
But the larger animals, such as elephants, rhinoceros, 
and tapirs, are totally absent. The natives were 
astonished on being told that the ivory handle of 
a kris belonging to one of Witti's men was carved 
out of the tusk of an animal living in herds down 
the Kinabatangan. The men hereabouts wear on 
a rattan-string round their neck a short knife, the 
handle of which is invariably a boar's tusk. It is 
quite an effective addition to their scanty wearing 
apparel. Here at Koligan Mr. Witti saw the first 
glazed potteryware inland, or rather the Dusuns them- 
selves offered it for barter; one piece was a sort 
of teapot representing a fantastic bird, the other a 
miniature jar. "Their parting so easily with these 



STEANGEES AMONG STEANGB PEOPLE. 101 

articles would imply that the old china craze has not 
penetrated to this secluded village/' 

At Danao he found an interesting custom prevail- 
ing, in the fashion of welcoming a visitor. The 
young wife of the headman met Mr. Witti as he 
entered the village. She moistened some rice in a 
small bamboo. " I had then to open my hand, and she 
poured some grains on it, after which the rice was 
again put back into the bamboo. This opened their 
hospitality, and I may subsequently partake of their 
rice and betel. They are not so barbarous as to call 
me 'Tuan,* they simply say 'Pinai,' which means 
iriends/' 

Formerly the Danao Dusuns were head-hunters. 
In the house of the headman here there are still 
preserved three dozen skulls, forming no doubt an 
heirloom. Among the skulls in question, Witti 
noticed two which were taken from children, and it 
is remarkable how firmly set and how white the teeth 
in all of them are. Previous travellers have shown 
that in the head-hunting districts of Borneo, small 
heads, those of women and children, are considered 
most honourable, as evincing especial courage in the 
captors, it being understood that the tribes attacked 
would fight hard for their women and children. 

Walking on from Makal towards Pinowantei, a herd 
of buffaloes was met, on what might be called in this 



102 THB NEW CBILON. 

part a flat meadow. Bii£Ealoe3 here are reared for no 
other purpose than food. They are of a heavy breed* 
The mountain slopes are not practicable for cattle^ 
and the people as yet know nothing of the plough. 
A buffalo is here worth '^twenty tinokals, or forty 
dollars, while at Tampassuk a fine riding bull costs 
twelve dollars. The tinokal at two dollars forms the 
unit of value, and is taken from a small gong-like 
instrument. "Nobody remembers buffaloes being 
brought from outside into this tract of very difficult 
ground, else it would offer a chance for traders from 
the coast.^' The hill rice is sometimes grown on 
declivities of forty-five degrees. The necessary 
recourse to that alone excludes any fitness of this 
soil for higher objects of planting. The rice is of a 
peculiar description, retaining a reddish colour even 
after being boiled. 

''These Dasons have a way of their own in striking fire. Steel 
and flint is replaced by a fragment of cliina and a small bamboo- 
• oane. Their tinder is sore to bum on the first stroke. From fire to 
water: pipes of bamboo are laid at the crossings of most of the- 
nnmerons streamlets, and also lead to the fields, forming neat little 
fountains (native aqaedact)." 

At Margis and Tambunan, where the expedition 
arrived on November] 29th, the women knew nothing 
of foreign cotton-yam, while their sisters " up Sugut "" 
know it and like it; " but these here are as keen on 



STEANGEBS AMONG STRANGE PEOPLE. 103 

needles as those/^ Needle in Dusun means a human 
parasite of a very disagreeable kind^ and the natives 
here are sadly infested "with that wingless, hemip- 
terous insect/' " We yesterday passed a number of 
rustic damsels whose hair was quite carroty from 
neglect/' This may have given rise to the report of 
fair-haired people living somewhere to the south. 

The Tambunanians appear to indulge occasionally 
in a little head-hunting. There were many skulls in 
one old man's house, some of which looked very fresh 
indeed. The lower jawbone was wanting in them. 
The taste of the Dusuns in this respect is manifold. 
In most villages the skulls of monkeys are preserved; 
in others those of deer or pig ; in many only the lower 
jaws of deer, the carapaces of land-tortoises, the 
bladders of goats, and the drumsticks of fowls^ 
However, the collection of crania here, at first sight, 
unnerved Witti's men a little, considering that the 
Dusuns were pouring in while the inspection was 
going on. Later in the evening the expedition managed 
to get up a concert and dance; and after that all 
enjoyed a quiet sleep. No white men ever visited 
Tambunan before, and the people eagerly questioned 
the travellers a.s to where they came from. In the 
first part of their journey they were asked : ^' Where 
are you going to?" 



104 THE NEW CEYLON. 



vn. 

Early in December, Mr. Witti found himself at 
Tangao, getting there by following the course of the 
Pappar. The river meanders west, south, west, 
south j in a few reaches it sweeps round as far as 
S.S.E. the one, and N.W. the other way. At 900 feet 
above sea-level, it is already as wide as down at the 
Residency, but it is bouldered up and forms many 
rapids. At a level of 1200 feet above sea a fall occurs, 
the water dropping from about nine feet. The Dusuns 
call that " Wasch.'^ Where the banks are bold, the 
river takes its sharp turns and causes landslips. 
These require an ascent and a descent of 100 feet 
each way, and the footing of a goat would answer best 
for such scrambles. Thus, while moving for the 
greater part in the shallow water, Witti had to make 
many a " portage '' without employing rafts. The 
banks are in many places rocky. The river flows in a 
bed of sandstone. Now and then the rock shows a 
slaty structure, and in one place, just below Tungao, 
the right bank is built up of conglomerate. The 
fords were found to be between two and three feet 
deep. The aflBuents to the Pappar in this part are 
the Kalangan, the Purog, the Ponobukan, and the 
Tikuh. Villages and hamlets succeed each other 



STRANGEBS AMONG STRANGE PEOPLE. 105 

down river : Tapa, Buntingnabai, Purog, Romit, Kapa^ 
Ponobukan, Kobulu, Boyan, and Tungao. 

Mr. Witti arrived at the Residency at Tampassuk 
early in December, having been away a month and 
two days. The rafts with his companions turned up 
in due course. Of the thirty-three miles which he 
floated down the river, the names of villages and 
affluents to the Pappar River are only partly recorded, 
but the course of the river is put down more accurately. 
It continues in a W.S.W. direction, until some fourteen 
miles from the Residency, when its windings mostly 
turn W.N.W. Of the last four miles only a single 
reach lies W.S.W. ; all the others between W.N.W. 
and N.N.W. The line from Pappar village to the 
Residency Pappar lies W. by S. Beginning from 
Kagaban village, both banks present one continuous 
cocoa-nut plantation, interspersed with numerous 
hamlets and single houses. 

The whole course of the Pappar River, as traced by 
Mr. Witti, may be computed at fifty-five miles — 
that is, between Pappar village and the Company's 
station. Its navigability ceases some twelve miles 
above the latter place, say sixteen miles from the river 
mouth. The last dangerous rapid is about twenty 
miles distant. The river meanders a good deal ; none 
of the reaches are longer than half a mile, and most of 
them are only two cable-lengths. The Pappar could 



106 THE NBW CBYLON. 

by no means be called an outlet for the ricli district of 
Tambunan. A sort of outlet exists at the Patatan, 
but only for valuable produce, as gutta and beeswax. 
Whether anything reaches the coast by way of the 
Nabai country and the Kimanis Mr. Witti does not 
know. The experienced Abang Drahman, Resident 
Everett's right-hand man, told him that the Tambunan 
people go by the name of the " Great Dayaks/' that 
they are rather avoided by traders, and never asso- 
ciated with by other adjacent tribes. 



vin. 

During this and other excursions Mr. Witti, and 
Mr. W. B. Pryer, the Company's Resident at 
Sandakan, have exploded some of the most cherished 
fictions of geographical history, more particularly that 
of the wonderful lake of Kina Balu. In a paper read 
before the Royal Geographical Society, February 4th, 
1881, Mr. William M. Crocker said : 

" There are several lakes in Borneo ; the largest is supposed to be 
Lake Eina Bain, which in all existing maps of Borneo is marked as 
lying to the sonthward of the Kina Bain Monntain, in the newly- 
acquired territory of the North Borneo Company. Mr. J. Hunt, who 
communicated an account of Borneo, in 1812, to Sir Stamford 
Ba£Ele8, reported the existence of this lake. Mr. Spenser St. John^ 
who ascended Eina Bain, and who had a good view over the country 
lying to the south and south-east, says that it certainly does not lie 



STRANGERS AMONG STRANGE PEOPLE. 107 

in that direction, where he says there is a large plain. Bat a man 
who accompanied Mr. St. John said that he had traded with the 
villages on the banks of the lake, and asserted that, standing on the 
beach, he coald not seethe other side. 

" Mr. St. John must have lived long enough in Borneo to know the 
valne of native reports. Not long since I passed the night in a Dayak 
honse in the Badong district, where I met an old man who informed 
me that he was a Malow — one of a tribe living on the upper waters 
of the Kapoas. He assured me in the most solemn manner that he 
had seen men with tails. He said he ascended the Eapaas to near 
its source, and then walked across to the head of the Banjer, which 
rises near a very high mountain named ' Batu Balan ' (moonstone) . 
Here he fell in with a tribe of men with tails. He could not speak 
their langaage, but he and his friend managed to make themselves 
understood, and were treated very kindly by them. They remained 
seven days and nights amongst the tribe. Both men and women 
had tails.* They wore bark of trees as a covering, through which a 
hole was made for the tail to pass through ; they planted paddy, and 
lived in long houses. These and other particulars he recounted, 
which gave a colonring of truth to his statements. I have heard 

* Mr. Carl Bock, in his interesting narrative of travel up the 
Mahakkam and down the Barito, published under the title of " The 
Head-Hunters of Borneo," heard of people with tails at the village 
of Dassa, a settlement of the Beona Dayaks. Carl Bock wonders if 
** Mr. Darwin received the first suggestion of his theory of man's 
simian descent from the fables concerning the existence of tailed 
men which obtained credence among so many uncivilised people.'* 
Such definite statements were made to the traveller in this village 
that he ultimately, with the consent of the ruling authority, sent one 
Tjiropon, who had seen the tailed people in an adjacent country, on 
an expedition to bring two of them safely to Dutch territory. The 
messenger was well paid, and credited with letters from his chief to 
the Saltan of Passir, in whose territories the tailed people were said 
to exist. Some time afterwards Carl Bock returned to Passir. 
Tjiropon gave a meagre account of his mission. He had seen the 



108 THE NEW CEYLON. 

these stories oontinnally from other sources, but I am conyinced 
these wonders are all invented by Dayaks and travellers, who have 
retomed from long journeys into the interior, for the parpose of 
magnifying their own importance. 

** From personal experience of lakes in Borneo, I am inclined to 
think that the nomeroas rivers which no doubt descend the Eina Bala 
mountain in the rainy season wonld naturally overflow the plain 
mentioned by Mr. St. John as lying to the southward, and that the 
district thus inundated, having been visited by native travellers, has 
been mistaken for a lake." 

Since this paper was read and discussedMr. Crocker's 
theory has been fully confirmed, more particularly by 
Mr. Pryer and Mr. Witti, who, in their explorations 
of the country south of Kina Balu mountain found no 
lake in or near the position marked on the maps. 

Sultan of Passir, and had delivered to him the letter of his Highness 
of Koetei, but he had seen no tailed people this time, though '* before 
Allah '' he swore he had long ago. With great difficulty Mr. Book 
organised another party of inquiry, with the following result : 

** After twenty-five days' absence the party returned with an inter- 
esting communication from the Sultan of Passir. It appeared that 
Tjiropon had after all delivered the letter from the Sultan of Koetei, 
in which the latter potentate asked his royal cousin to send him two 
of the Orang hoentoet, or 'tail people;' but the letter had been 
misunderstood by the Sultan of Passir. The suite in attendance 
upon him were known collectively as the Orang hoentoet di Sultan di 
Passir — ^literally the Hail people of the Saltan of Passir;' and his 
Highness, taking offence at the supposed request of his brother ruler 
that two of his personal attendants — ^in fact, his confidential men — 
should be sent to him, had waxed exceedingly wroth, and, calling 
Tjiropon before him^ he ordered him to depart immediately. ' If the 
Sultan of Koetei wants my Orang hoentoet' said he, * let him fetch 
them himself.' And so the Sultan of Passir, expecting an attack 



STSANGEBS AMONG STBANGE PEOPLE. 109 

There were some other points brought forward at 
the meeting of the Royal Geographical Association in 
question which it will not be out of place to allude to 
here. Mr. Crocker, for instance, referring to the map 
of the Indian Archipelago, demonstrated how desirable 
it is to England that, with our present possessions 
in the Straits of Malacca and China, and the im- 
portance of our commercial relations in the far 
East, we should still further strengthen our po- 
sition in those seas, the opportunity for which is 
afforded by North and North-west Borneo. "The 
splendid harbours on these coasts, in which the 
combined fleets of the world could ride in safety, and 
the unlimited supply of coal, secure a commanding 



from the Saltan of Koetei in response to his challengej had been 
arming himself ever since, erecting fortifications, and preparing for 
war. The letter from Mr. Meijer had satisfactorily explained matters, 
and pnt his Highness at his ease. His mistake -was, perhaps, par. 
donable, for he sent word that the only Orang hoentoet he had ever 
heard of were those, so called, forming his suite.'' 

It seems to me that the author of ''The Head-Hnnters of 
Borneo '* nnconscioasly offers in his illastrations a possible explana- 
tion of the current fiction. His Bornean hunter wears an outer 
skin in sach a way that the tail of it might in the distance be 
mistaken for a human dorsal appendage ; while the scant toilette 
of the Dayak boys lends itself to the same idea. Natives of tribes 
not cultivating this kind of dress might naturally enough speak of 
others as Orang hoentoet, and native travellers desiring to exalt 
their own importance may have invented the living tail out of the 
ornamental one. 



110 THE NEW CEYLON. 

position in the event of a naval war. Already the 
Russians possess strongly-fortified settlements on the 
Manchnrian coast to the north of Ghina^ and are said 
to covet the commodious havens of the Korea^ where 
their daily increasing fleets might find protection. It is 
therefore manifestly of paramount importance to British 
interests and trade that England should maintain her 
supremacy in those waters by securing those advantages 
in Borneo which are now within her grasp^ and which 
can be acquired with such evident benefit tothe nation.'^ 
Lord Aberdare, the President of the Geographical So- 
ciety, in introducing Mr. Crocker, said that gentleman 
had peculiar advantages for obtaining a knowledge 
of his subject, ^^ inasmuch as he had spent no less than 
sixteen years of his life at Sarawak, and had taken an 
active interest in all its affairs. During a large part of 
the time he had officiated as Resident, and during the 
absence of Rajah Brooke he had administered the 
affairs as President of the Administrative Committee. 
Throughout the whole period he had taken an in- 
telligent interest in the interior of Borneo, an island 
second only in size to Australia, and which contained, 
probably, nearly as much unknown land as any other 
portion of the globe of equal dimensions." 

Lord Aberdare also made some observations at 
the close of the meeting, bearing upon a question 
referred to several times in the course of this work^ 



STSAXGEBS AMONG STEAKGE PEOPLE. Ill 

and somewliat eloquently exploited in the graphic 
details of a river-trip described by the Eesident at 
Sandakan in the chapter following this. I mention 
these succeeding pages here, feeling that the general 
reader may find the present chapter, possibly, over- 
weighted with the political and economic aspects of 
the new cession to British enterprise and money. 
Lord Aberdare, in proposing a vote of thanks to 
Mr. Crocker, is reported, in the ^'Proceedings of the 
Royal Geographical Society/' to have said : 

''Englishmen are yeryapt to consider themselyes thegreat colonisers 
of the world, and indeed they have done a work of which they may 
justly be proad. They have taken possession of and extended them- 
selyes over immense tracts of coontry, which are likely to perpetuate 
a race as vigoroas and enterprising as onr own ; but there are certain 
olimatic conditions which oppose their spreading in every region of 
the world. Although men like Sir James Brooke and Mr. Alfred 
Dent may lead the way in civilising districts at^present inhabited by 
barbarous or semi-barbarous people, it is quite clear that Borneo can 
never be settled altogether by persons of English race ; and as it seems 
to be the fate of inferior races to give way to others more energetic, 
it is probable that the huge islands of the Eastern Seas will in process 
of time be inhabited by descendants of the Chinese race. There is, 
however, one great feature of present times which cannot be over- 
looked. Unfortunately, it cannot be said that wars have ceased, but 
they are now generally on a comparativelysmall scale, and the devas- 
tation caused by them is slight indeed when contrasted with that of the 
wars of past days. I believe that if an accurate census could have been 
taken in India at the time that England became possessed of it, and 
if another were taken at the present day, it would be found that the 
population has increased by upwards of 50,000,000. No doubt, as 
Asia becomes more and more under the domination of the three great 



112 THE NEW CEYLON. 

empires, Bassia, China, and Great Britain, the popnlation will increase 
enormonsly, and in process of time overflow to the south, jast as in 
ancient times it oyerflowed to the west. The west is now too strongly 
occupied to permit of wholesale immigration. In all probability 
China, with its 400,000,000 inhabitants, is destined to find an outlet 
in the magnificent islands to the south. The Chinese constitution is 
fitted to the climate which persons of the English race are unable to 
stand." 



IX. 

Tho subject of the influence of England and other 
naval powers in the Eastern Seas, and more particu- 
larly in the Pacific, was carefully considered by an 
essayist in "The Edinburgh Eeview'^ of July, 1880, 
the occasion being a critical review of Eavenstein's 
"Russians on the Amoor,'^ Bax's "Eastern Seas/' 
Colomb's " Russian Development and our Naval and 
Military Positions in the North Pacific," and Paul 
Graff areVs "Les Colonies Fran9aises/' It was here 
shown that the English population of our colonial 
possessions in the year of the Great Exhibition of 
1851, was not more than two millions, reckoning them 
up in all parts of the world ; while to-day the colonies 
in the South Pacific alone contain nearly three millions 
of inhabitants of European descent. Their united 
revenues are greater than that of many an ancient 
and important state in Europe. The total value of 
their imports and exports is nearly a hundred millions 



STEANGEES AMONG STRANGE PEOPLE. 113 

sterling. The statistics of their realised wealth, of 
their railways, their telegraphs, their post-oflBces, and 
their shipping, compare favourably with those of 
many far-earlier-settled communities. Important as 
they are, however, and closely as they are connected 
with the mother country by the ties of commerce as 
well a« of nationality and loyal affection, our inter- 
course with them includes but a part, and not the 
greater part, of our commercial interests in the Pacific 
Ocean. The exchange of commodities — exclusive of 
bullion — between the United Kingdom and our great 
dependencies at the Antipodes reaches in money value 
a total of about forty millions of pounds sterling. 
With our other possessions and the foreign countries 
which may be taken as belonging to the "Pacific 
system,'^ we have a trade reaching a value of nearly 
sixty millions. In fact, about one-sixth of the whole 
external commerce of Great Britain is carried on with 
the states and colonies which compose it. 

Hydrographically and strategically considered this 
colonial system may be said to extend from the Straits 
of Malacca on the west to the American coast on the 
east, and from Russian Tartary on the Amoor, to 
Southern Chili and Tasmania. It comprises the whole 
seaboard of the Chinese Empire and of Western 
America, north and south, besides the great Dutch, 
French, and Spanish colonies- Our business relations 



114 THX NEW CEYLON. 

with these countries are intimate and extensive. 
With the treaty ports of China and with Hong Kong 
we exchange aannallj upwards of twenty million 
pounds' worth of goods. With Japan we do a busi- 
ness of oyer three millions^ with the Philippines of 
more than two^ and with the Dutch islands three and 
a half. With French Cochin-China^ Siam, and our 
Straits Settlements our yearly trade amounts to close 
on fire. On the other side of the ocean the figures of 
our commerce with the Spanish American Eepublics 
amount to about twelve millions ; whilst a still larger 
sum would represent the value of our increasing inter- 
course with California and of our transactions with the 
remaining countries. 

In addition to these figures the British carrying 
trade is mentioned. In the year 1877^ exclusive of 
the coasting trade, the tonnage of ships entered and 
cleared in the Australasian ports was 6^394^529 British^ 
and 608,963, or less than one-tenth, foreign. About 
four-fifths of the transport of commodities to and 
from the Chinese Empire by sea are effected in vessels 
carrying the British flag. Lines of steamers flying 
the same ensign pass and repass across the South 
pacific from Panama to the Antipodes, along the coast 
of South America, and between Japan and China and 
our possessions in Australia and Malacca. 

Even these impressive facts take no account of the 



STEANQBES AMONG STEANGB PEOPLE, 115 

enormous trade between our colonies throughout the 
world and the several Pacific States on both sides of 
the ocean, and the food that comes for our home 
population from the Port of San Francisco. 

The Pacific Ocean occupies nearly one half of the 
whole surface of the globe. Its extent is greater than 
that of all the dry land. Other Powers beside our 
own possess important dependencies in its western 
portion, near our own colonies and our great trade 
routes. Between the Straits Settlements and Hong 
Kong lies the French colony of Cochin-China. Not 
far from the coast of Queensland are the islands of 
the New Caledonian group, which have been 
in the hands of the French for nearly thirty years. 
Fiji lies between them and the cluster of islands in 
the South Pacific, Taiti, Tuamotu, and the Marquesas, 
which last are also dependencies of France. The 
Dutch Indies of the Archipelago are neighbours of 
our settlements in the Straits of Malacca and at 
Labuan. Portugal still retains a memory of her 
former conquests in the island of Timor. The great 
group of the Spanish Philippines lines one of the old 
routes to the Chinese ports. On the other side British 
Columbia marches with the territory of the United 
States, both on the north and on the south. Colonial 
possessions of all the maritime powers, with the 
exception of the British province just named, lie 

I 2 



116 THE NEW CEYLON. 

only in the western and southern portions of the 
Pacific. Along the whole eastern side, from Vancouver 
to the Straits of Magellan, there is a wide belt of 
water, in which islands rarely occur. This circum- 
stance tends to complicate considerably the question 
of providing coaling stations for the steam fleets which 
already traverse its great spaces, and for the squadrons 
to which some day or other the rapidly-increasing 
commerce may have to look for protection. 

" One of the most powerful of European nations has for many 
years had a footing on the shores of the Pacific i thoagh, having first 
made her way to them by land, her possessions are continental rather 
than insalar. Bnssia is the owner of great tracts of coast on the 
North Pacific; and though of late years she has resigned her 
American territory to the United States, with the adjoining group 
of the Aleutian islands, she has compensated herself by extending the 
southern limit of her Amoor province of Eastern Siberia to the frontier 
of Corea ; whilst her cession of the Kuriles to Japan has given her 
undivided ownership of Sakhalin, which is close to, and forms but an 
outwork of, her possessions on terra firma. The development of the 
Eussian Empire in this quarter has not been watched in this country 
with the interest which it deserves. The history of her colonisation 
of the remote regions drained by the Amoor and ibs tributaries and 
washed by the waters of the Seas of Tartary and Okhotsk is a record 
of adventure, persistence, and conquest of hardships, which is well 
worth attention." 

The essayist, after an exhaustive examination of the 
strength of the Russian naval position in the Pacific 
as compared with our own and every other power, 
dwells upon the great desirability of England^s 



STEANaEES AMONG STEANaE PEOPLE. 117 

possessing an island i^ation in the waters between 
Japan and Corea, or off the southern extremity 
of the latter peninsula. In the absence of such a 
possession it would seem that the only course open 
to a navy called upon to protect the trade of 
this country against cruisers issuing from the 
Siberian ports would be to attack and destroy the 
ships which they might contain. One significant 
anecdote may be given, which will explain with much 
distinctness what the escape of a cruising squadron 
from those harbours would imply as against our 
commercial interests in the Pacific. When, towards 
the end of 1878, the late Prime Minister was pre- 
sented with a gold box by the British residents in 
San Francisco, the spokesman of the deputation, 
Mr. Harrison, said in the course of his address : '' We 
had thirteen Russian cruisers lying in our harbour, and 
some 600,000 or 700,000 tons of shipping about 
leaving it.'^* As the greater part of the cargoes of 
the ships whose sailing depended upon the event of 
peace or war, was composed of food for this country, 
we may concede that there was something more than 
mere business interests that might have had to look 
to our navy for protection. 

• Commander Ourdon, B.N., says ("Jonmal of Boyal United 
Service Institntion," vol. xxi. p. 686) : " I have seen 70,000 tons 
of British shipping lying at anchor at one time in the harbour 
of San Francisco." 



118 THE NEW CEYLON. 

The BusBian naval force ii^ the Pacific has been 
recently increased. There are 15,000 troops main- 
tained in the Amoor region, most of them in or near 
the coast ports. Several battalions of riflemen are 
formed oat of the local settlers. Some of these 
extensions were made in view of possible troubles 
with China. We have a respectable force in these 
distant waters; but in the north-western portion of 
the Pacific we have no coaling stations north of Hong 
Kong which would be available in war. Japan and 
China would supply us with coal, but they belong to 
the family of nations, and would be entitled to issue 
proclamations of neutrality, and they have fleets which 
are not to be despised as engines for compelling a 
proper international observance thereof. The Bussian 
ships would have the enormous advantage of a long 
line of coast and many harbours to which they could 
resort, where they would find plenty of fuel and 
supplies of all kinds procured on the spot or brought 
to them by a land route quite secure against attacks 
from hostile ships. No other European power has the 
same resources on the spot. 



STRANGBES AMONG STEANGB PEOPLE. 119 



The cutting of the Panama Canal will sooner or later 
attract increased attention to our interests in the 
Pacific. Trade may be attracted into fresh routes 
and demand new means of protection. Touching the 
North Pacific, General Selby Smyth, commanding 
the military forces of Canada, in a report published 
last year, speaks of the inadequate force at Victoria, 
and directs attention to the fact that Vancouver is 
only 4500 miles from Petrapaulovsk, and that the 
Amoor is barely 500 miles farther off. 

" * In the event of war,* lie says, 'Rassia would be in a position to 
harass not only Hong Kong and the China and Japan trade, bat to 
send a sqaadron across the ocean in thirty days to attack the 
western seaport of the Dominion. Our secnrity in the Pacific requires 
EsqnimaJt to be well guarded; our fleets must keep the sea^ if 
necessary, in all weathers, and they cannot do so without coal. That 
important element is in ample stock and of prime quality at Nanaimo. 
The British navy is scattered over the Pacific, and there were no 
works of defence at Vancouver till last year ; no forts for the pro- 
tection of our coal ; nothiug but British prestige and a few companies 
of militia at Victoria and up the Fraser Biver.' " 

Upon this, and other points of equal importance, 
the Edinburgh Eeviewer comes to the conclusion 



120 THE NEW CETLON. 

that few will care to deny that our whole naval 
position in the Pacific Ocean has undergone an im- 
portant change ; and without for a moment regarding 
other powers jealously, with every wish to be respect- 
ful to Russia^ and only desirous of maintaining our 
own, it would be a grave mistake should we shut our 
eyes to the changing necessities of our maritime forces 
in the Eastern Seas. "Interests, which thirty years 
ago we could hardly have considered very important, 
have attained dimensions which render their pro- 
tection a matter worthy of serious consideration. A 
great colonial empire has grown up there in the 
interval, which not only promises to increase in 
wealth and size, but which also draws to it more and 
more of our trade, and is now holding out the hope 
of aiding in the supply of food which we require. A 
large proportion of the capital of the country invested 
in shipping and the cargoes carried by it is con- 
tinuously employed in the commerce of the Pacific. 
Throughout its wide spaces we have but few resting- 
places for our ships. We have no real basis for naval 
operations between Sydney, Vancouver, and Hong 
Kong. The days in which the coast ports of Spanish 
America monopolised nearly the whole of the tonnage 
saiUng on its waters under our flag have quite gone by. 
New routes upon it are every day being followed. 
At the same time powers far more formidable than 



STBANaEES AMONG STEANGE PEOPLE. 121 

the turbulent republics of the South and Central 
American coast, or than the Celestial Empire, have 
gained a footing on its shores. If ever our navy 
should be called upon to protect our trade against an 
enemy, it will not be in the Pacific that the least 
important portion of its duties will be performed.^' 

The geographical and strategical position of 
British North Borneo formed a leading topic at a 
meeting held at the Westminster Palace Hotel, 
March 26th, 1879, to discuss the affairs of the new 
cession. Mr. Thomas Sutherland, chairman of the 
Peninsular and Oriental Steamship Company, in 
speaking of the important geographical position 
of North Borneo, said : " It is an exceedingly 
advantageous position from a political point of view 
for England to control. The great majority of those 
who are here, I presume, like myself, have some 
particular acquaintance with the East, more particu- 
larly with the China Sea, therefore it must appear to 
them with far greater force now than ever, that in our 
commerce we are at a great loss for the want of a 
sufficient and commodious harbour between the two 
places to which we now trade, namely, Singapore and 
Hong Kong. If we can only gain the advantage of 
having a port so conveniently situated and so admirably 
suited for strategical purposes, and if we can gain the 
great advantage of prosecuting there an entirely new 



122 THE NEW CEYLON. 

trade whicli this country of oars requires so much at 
the present moment, I think I need say no more in 
favour of the resolution whicn I now submit to the 
meeting : ' That North Borneo holds such a position 
geographically in the midst of the China Sea, midway 
between the great trading centres of Singapore and 
•Hong Kong, with exceptionally good harbours and 
coal supplies, as will at no distant date render its occu- 
pation of undoubted importance to the commerce and 
interests of this country as a great maritime power/ ^^ 
Admiral Keppel, addressing himself to another 
branch of the same subject, said : 

^'I think I can state from personal ezperienoe that there 
is no place in the Eastern Seas so well adapted, so far as the 
coast and harbours are concerned, as this is, and so well oalonlated 
to protect the trade or any establishment which may be formed 
there. The first thing I can naturally suppose for any Government 
to consider would be likely to be this : Whether or not protection 
can be afforded to those who expend their capital in this proposed 
settlement? Now, I can find no place so easily defended as this 
place could be, at so little expense to the Government. With one or 
two gunboats at the outside (natives have a very great respect for 
that small class of vessel), together with the assistance of the 
torpedo, of which we have lately heard so much, I think the whole 
coast could be very easily defended. There is the harbour of Gaya, 
which is one of the finest harbours in the world and capable of 
holding any amount of shipping, and there is a larger harbouxM)n 
the eastern coast called Sandakan. That would be of the same 
importance on the east coast as the harbour of Gaya on the western 
eoast, the latter, however, being more in the line of the traffic 
between China and Singapore and other ports.'' 



STT?ANaBES AMONG STBANQB PEOPLE, 123 

Eef erring to the political aspect of the cession, 
which Sir Douglas Forsyth had mentioned in a speech 
approving of the desirability of the Government sup- 
porting the efforts of the association, Sir Rutherford 
Alcock said : 

''Then there is the politioal point of view which Sir Douglas 
Forsyth touched upon very successfully and properly. No doubt 
every proposal to occupy any new land — ^whatever its advantages 
may be — will meet with some amount of oppontion from the common 
argument, that it does not matter whether you make it a colony or 
only allow British subjects to go there ; they will sooner or later get 
into a quarrel, and will want protection, and then we shall have the 
cost and the trouble and anxiety of protecting them. I think in my 
introductory observations I almost met that objection by anticipa- 
tion. It is impossible to conceive, in the present state of the world, 
that such a tempting territory as Borneo, with one if not two of the 
finest harbours in the Eastern Seas, will long remain unoccupied by 
other Powers. It becomes a question, theu, whether it should be 
occupied under the British flag, or by those who may be our enemies. 
Now, looking to our possessions in this part of the world, and to the 
fact that this is right in the fair way to them, certainly if this 
territory were in the hands either of Eussia or of any other of the 
European powers with whom we might unfortunately be at war, it 
would make a very material difference in any efforts we might make 
to carry on our commerce without molestation. Gaya as a port not 
only might be very easily defended by any Power in possession, but 
it wonld afford protection to privateers and ships of war which might 
dash out on this line of commerce ; and even a large fleet like ours 
would hardly be able to protect it. If it were, on the contrary, in 
our possession, we should have shelter for our own ships instead of 
having others thus sheltered to attack us, and from whence we could 
look out for any privateers or fleet which might attempt to disturb 
the even course of our commerce." 



124 THE NEW CEYLON. 



XI. 



It would seem, then, that the chief hope of civilising 
and making prosperous the islands of the Indian Archi- 
pelago lies in the power to attract the very class of 
labour which America has obtained from China, with 
power to control and economise it. At the meeting 
just mentioned, Mr. Errington, M.P., who takes a deep 
and active interest in the welfare of all natives, spoke 
with satisfaction of the fact that the new Company 
would only employ free labour. ''The meeting,^' he said, 
'' will be glad to observe the great advantages which 
Borneo possesses in this respect from its position, 
being within such easy reach of the Chinese coast, 
from which ample supplies of free labour may be 
obtained. In other places, not so circumstanced, it is 
necessary to have recourse to the system of indentured 
coolie labour. I believe it is admitted that Cliinese 
labour needs no such indenture system. Therefore, 
by the mere encouragenient of free immigration from 
China, you will be able to supply your settlement in 
Borneo with ample labour, under conditions which 
will commend themselves to the approval of the 



STRANGERS AMONG STRANGE PEOPLE. 125 

people o£ this country." The vast islands of the 
Eastern Seas are evidently destined to become actively 
subject to foreign governments — the administra- 
tive power and capital being European, the labour 
largely Chinese.* The Dutch at Java, the English at 
Sarawak, have shown what can be done in this 
direction; and a further and probably more rapid 
development may be looked for in the territory of 
British North Borneo. 

* *' Bat the phases of character in which the Chinese possess the 
most interest for as Western peoples are those which so pecnliarlj fit 
them for competing in the great labour-market of the world. They 
are good agricnltarists, mechanics, labourers, and sailors ; and they 
possess all the intelligence, delicacy of touch, and unwearying 
patience which are necessary to render them first-rate machinists 
and manufacturers. They are, moreover, docile, sober, thrifty, 
industrious, self-denying, enduring, and peace-loving to a degree. 
They are equal to any climate, be it hot or frigid j all that is needed 
is teaching and guiding, combined with capital and enterprise, to 
convert them into the most efficient workmen to be found on the face 
of the earth. In support of these assertions it is only necessary to 
refer to our experience of them in America, Australia, India, and 
the Eastern Archipelago. Wherever the tide of Chinese emigration 
has set in, there they have proved themselves veritable working bees, 
and made good their footing, to the exclusion of less quiet, less 
exacting, less active, or less intelligent artisans and labourers. Even 
in China they have already proved their worth by helping to con- 
struct, under foreign superintendence, men-of-war of first-class 
workmanship and formidable proportions; and their artificers are 
daily acquiring increased skill in the arsenals now in active work at 
Tientsin, Shanghae, and Foochow. The marvellous energy of which 
they are capable as mere labourers is moreover constantly exhibited 



126 THE KBW CEYLON, 

at the port of Slianghae> where they haye been known to'accomplish 
the discharge of a ship in less time, as I have been assured, than can 
be effected by dock-labourers at home, even with all the appliances 
of cranes and otherwise which these latter haye at disposal." — " The 
Foreigner in Far Cath»y,** hy Sir Walter Medh/ursi, formerly H,B,M. s 
Consul at Shamghae. 



V. 
A TRIP ON THE KINABATANGAN. 

Art and Travel — The Unknown — ^Tropical Scenery — ^A hundred and 
fifty miles of Eiver never previously visited by Europeans — 
Edible Birdsnest Farmers — Savagery — Tales of Blood and 
Plunder — English Influences — Floating Houses — Native Men 
and Women at Home — Open-air Bivouacs — Living Wonders of 
the Tropics — Gorgeous Birds and Butterflies — Human Heads in 
Wrong Places — ^At Imbok — Natives in Splendid Attire— Wild 
Animals — Opportunities for Sport — The KLnabatangan of th& 
Future — The Vanished Baoe and the Coming Labourer. 



I. 

Art loves the shadows of gray old towers, or their 
reflected images in shallow waters, rather than the 
wild torrents of forest- wastes and mountains. 

The English painter seeking space on the walls 
of the English Academy, finds his most popular sub- 
jects in familiar stories^ in domestic incident, in the 
illustration of history or the current life of the times,, 
keeping upon the ordinary human track of existence. 
If he is a landscape artist he rarely gets away from 



128 THE NEW CEYLON. 

the calm restful scenes of his own country, unless 
it is to wander in the sunny lands of an ancient 
civilisation. 

One would have thought that the representative 
painters of a great empire, which counts its chief 
possessions in the tropics, would have striven to bring 
home to us through the medium of their glowing 
canvases a continual sense of the strange beauties of 
those countries of everlasting summer. I suspect 
only a great master would dare to exhibit anything 
like true transcripts of Nature as she is seen at the 
equator; but the etcher, the worker in black and 
white, need fear no adverse criticism which the 
colourist would be sure to encounter the closer he 
adhered to the truth. 

By an odd coincidence the other day, I had 
laid down this manuscript diary of a journey along 
one of the most important waterways of Sabah 
near a copy of Mr. Hammerton's familiar contri- 
bution to art and letters, "The Unknown Eiver.'* 
Everybody knows the delightful etchings with which 
the author has studded his poetic pages. "The 
explorer of a nameless European river," he says, 
"need not hope to be remembered like Livingstone 
or Speke, but he may set forth in the full assurance 
of finding much that is worth finding and of enjoying 
many of the sensations, deducting those connected 



A TRIP ON THE KINABATANGAN. 129 

With personal vanity, which give interest to more 
famous explorations/' Mr. Hammerton, of course, 
only speaks of his river from an art point of view. 
Old enough in the recorded history of the district, it 
had, however, not been " illustrated/' He registers a 
qualification in this respect when he says: "It is 
necessary to the complete enjoyment of an excursion 
of discovery that the region to be explored, whether 
mountain or river, or whatever else it may be, should 
not have been explored by others, or, at any rate, not 
with the same objects and intentions. A geologist 
has a certain satisfaction in marching, hammer in 
hand, over a tract of country not yet conquered for 
geology; and an artist likes to sketch in secluded 
valleys where it is not probable that any artist has 
been before.'' If Mr. Hammerton or some kindred 
genius could only be induced to follow this liking to 
its extremity, and explore with pencil and etching- 
plate a Bornean river, the result would be some rare 
artistic compositions of marked and positive form, 
with studies of lights and shadows that would be 
both interesting and instructive when compared with 
pictorial illustrations of our northern clime. The 
real "unknown river" of Kinabatangan for example, 
what a companion volume it would make to Mr, 
Hammerton's idealised stream that hurries by the 
towers of Autun ! 



130 THE mSW CBYLOK. 



The following notes are from the diary of an 
excursion np the Kinabatangan River, hj Mr. Pryer, 
the Company^s Resident at Sandakan, who explored it 
a distance of one hundred and fifty miles farther than 
it had been visited by any other European. He left 
Sandakan ''on the 23rd February, 1881, in the steam- 
launch 'Boyah' (Crocodile). Mr. W. in charge of 
engines, an engine-driver, stoker, and steersman ; my 
boy (a heathen Chinee) Banjer, a Banjermassin man 
who had been captured near that place by Balignini 
pirates, sold in Sooloo, and subsequently freed by me; 
a Sooloo pilot, in general charge of the expedition, 
and therefore termed 'the Commodore;' and three 
other Sooloos in a gobang (canoe) towing astern.^' 

Having with some diflSlculty pushed through the 
Langan langan Manook ('' in some maps another way 
is marked from Sandakan Bay to the Kinabatangan 
River, which does not exisf ), they entered the lagoon 
district, a swamp of some forty or fifty miles in length 
and about twenty deep^ fringed with mangroves and 
nepas; covered at high water, but black slime and 
mud at low ; intersected everywhere by lagoons and 
backwaters. 

" One of mj boats was once lost here for five days, the men being 
rednced to great straits for want of water, and I myself, with good 



A TRIP 0» THE KESrABATANGAN. 131 

gaides, ha,ve twice been lost for a day each time. One lagoon or 
creek is exactly like another, and sometimes after proceeding along 
one in search of the tme way, we would find that we had wasted a 
couple of hoars or more exploring a blind alley. At the back of this 
dreary region, its month debouching into, and being lost amongst 
the numerous lagoons, is one fine riyer, the Alfred, and as in the 
course of the day we passed no less than five large openings down 
which water, paartly fresh, wa£ discharged, I expect it is not the only 
one. In times long past the Booloodoopy tribe had its headquarters 
somewhere amongst these waters, choosing this strange locality so 
as not to be easily found by the fierce pirates constantly haunting 
the coast. Once, with an old Booloodoopy, one of the fathers of the 
tribe, as guide, I found my way through the swamps into the 
Alfred Biyer, and ascended it for several miles. At the farthest 
point reached, it was nearly two hundred yards wide; eleven fathoms 
deep ; fresh water ;. virgin forest on either bank; a rich soil; and a 
flat ground alternating with low hills." 

Steaming up tlie river till ten o'clock and there 
anchoring for the night, Mr. Fryer's expedition went 
on the next morning at five, and arrived at Malape, 
the first sign of human dwellings seen in the river 
from its entrance. The village had its origin in 
the Gormanton caves, some 25,000 dollars' worth of 
birdsnests is yearly bought, and it is also at present 
used as the depdt for up-country produce. It is fairly 
prosperous, and as a mild but firm government is 
being introduced instead of the old Sooloo style, many 
people are flocking to the place, which is rapidly ex- 
panding. Starting off again about eleven o'clock, 
for one hour or more the expedition steamed past 

campongs, houses and gardens, until all signs of culti- 

K 2 



132 THE NKW CEYLON. 

yation ceased; for seven Hours afterwards nothing 
was seen but low thick forest on either bank. 

Febraary 24th saw the launch under way again; and 
all day the expedition passed through " nothing but 
interminable forest, without any indication of human 
Hfe.'' Even the birds and butterflies and other tropical 
wonders .of ''wing and feather '^ were absent. The 
river rolled on in soUtary state, fringed with untrodden 
woods. "At Seebongan," says Mr. Pryer, "I made 
inquiries about the prospects of sport. 'Any ele- 
phants ? ' * Mataod ' (lots). ' Rhinoceros ? ' ' Mataod.' 
'Deer?' 'Mataod.' 'Pigs?' 'Mataod/ 'Buffaloes?' 
' Oh ! mataod sekali/ Then a noise, something 
between a squeal and a snort, was heard, apparently 
within a few yards of the chief ^s house, which was dimly 
visible against the clear black sky : ' That^s one ! ' '^ 

Two days were spent here in visiting the chief 
and taking in wood to replace the exhausted coal. 
On the 27th they steamed away again, passing many 
abandoned clearings, about which, Banjer, an old 
river man, spun many yams. Here was one chiefs 
place, there another's; at this point Dato So-and-so 
fought Pangeran Someone else ; in a house over there 
had been big " bichara " between two chiefs ; here the 
Sultan had a " Bintang-marrow "* station (a custom- 

• A Bintang-marrow station is made by slinging a rattan aoross 
the stream, for raising which a heavy datj is charged. 



A TEIP ON THE KINABATANGAN. 133 

liouse) ; down this long reach, for miles together, the 
Tunbumohas had houses and gardens on either bank, 
and so forth and so on. Banjer was a Sultan's man, 
and had once been put on a " Bintang-marrow '^ 
station. The man in charge of it thought the time 
had come to take a little duty in blood, just to let 
people see that the Sultan didn't keep ''Bintang- 
marrow" stations for nothing. So they caught a 
trader, accused him of evading the payment of duties, 
and tying a rope round his wrists, fastened him to a 
post with his feet off the ground, and left him hanging 
there. He cried continually all day long : " I have 
committed no fault, I have committed no fault.'' 
They returned in the evening with their krises and 
hewed him to bits. Banjer went on to tell Mr. 
Pryer that he was present when the Tunbumohas 
" semungup-ed " a man who was a bought slave. 
The Tunbumohas tied him up with his arms out- 
stretched (crucified in fact), and they danced round 
him. At last the headman approached, and wishing 
him a pleasant journey to Eana Balu, stuck his spear 
about an inch deep, and no more, in the man's body ; 
and another then said, " Bear my kind remembrances 
to my brother at Kina Balu," and did the same ; and 
in this way, with messages to deceased relatives at 
Kina Balu, all those present slightly wounded the 
man. When the dance was over they unbound 



184 THE NJEW CITLOH. 

Him^ bat he was dead. This custom is known as 
" semungup,'' and is practised by the far inland 
tribes to this day. The Tunbumohas, however, haying 
an intuitive idea that white men might not view such 
a custom with approval, have abandoned it so far that 
they substitute a pig for a man. 

Banjer was full of local stories of blood and 
plunder. Mr. Pryer speaks of the chief (whom 
Banjer calls Date) as "Dato Haroun al Easchid,'' 
which gives a spice of suggested fiction to all Banjer's 
stories ; but, judging from the works of other recent 
travellers in Borneo, they are no doubt only too true. 

" Dato Haroan al Basoliid once senti Banjer on an expedition to 
' rampasB ' (plunder) a Chinese trader at Lingcabo. Taba was their 
leader; there were four of them, Hasah was one (the disgraced 
Commodore). Hasah was yery active in picking ont the Chinaman's 
most yalnable goods (Hasah, simpering, denies the soft impeachment^ 
and intimates that Banjer's alacrity on the occasion in qnestion excited 
his highest admiration). Bat there was one man who didn't care for 
the Dato, Toongal of Polo Gnya; he came with his boats and blockaded 
the Kinabatangan, and Dato Haronn sent two big boats out to fight 
him, and he captured one and killed every soul on board. The other 
boat escaped, bat with three men of the crew killed. Then Dato 
Haroan went down to Palo Gaya and smashed Toongal's jaw. What 
with this on the one hand, and conferring a title on him on the 
other, he prevailed upon Toongal to keep quiet for a bit. He, 
however, broke out again afterwards, raided up the coast of Borneo, 
and round Sooloo itself, and away up the Palawan. He never gave 
any quarter, but killed everyone. When Banjer was down there tha 
other day in a British man-of .war, the Polo Guya people said : < Ah ! 
it's well for you you are on board a man-of .war. If it were not for 



A TBIF OK THE SINABATAIIGAN. 135 

these " Engreea" with their steam-lannches and breeoh.loading rifles, 
we would kill every Soolooman we oonld lay our hands on, as we 
used to do in the good old times.* " 

Mr. Pryer finds food for pleasant reflection in the 
fact that the bare knowledge that an Englishman is in 
the country has stopped murders and hnman sacrifices^ 
and has confined fierce head-hunting tribes within 
their own boundaries; has put an end to "Bintang 
marrow '' and its accompanying horrors ; has caused 
the fierce islanders, in a great measure, to abandon 
piracy, and has put a stop to an incalculable amount 
of misery, " though plenty yet remams to be done/' 



m. 

After steaming away till late in the afternoon, 
at last they came to houses — two small villages, 
TerbiUiong and Blut, inhabited by Tunbumohas. 
Amongst other people they met here the identical 
Taha alluded to by Banjer, and were warmly welcomed 
by him. Taha was on a trading expedition, and 
occupied what is termed a '^lanteen,^^ a dwelling 
which demands a word of description. It is a house, 
in fact, built on a bamboo raft; Taha's raft was about 
thirty feet long by twenty-four broad. About six 
feet of one end was open, forming a sort of verandah. 



136 THE NEW CEYLON. 

where cooking, etc. was done. The rest had an attap 
roof over it, shed fashion, about a third only being 
surrounded by side walls, forming the sleeping apart- 
ment, raised about three feet above the floor. In 
front was a porch, giving quite an air of finish to 
the whole. In this lanteen Taha could float down 
comfortably, from village to village, collecting his 
debts and storing his payments, which are generally 
rattans, always carrying his wife and family with 
him. The voyage up, with the trade goods, is done in 
a canoe, the goods being sold on credit from house to 
house, and the debts collected on the downward 
journey. 

Having visited the chief of the village, who 
received him with hearty demonstrations of welcome, 
the launch was tied alongside Taha's lanteen for 
the night, and the next morning (February 28th), 
shortly before daybreak, the expedition plunged once 
more into the seemingly endless forest. Meeting at 
length with difficult shallows, Mr. Pryer returned to 
Blut, where he transferred a few stores to the 
lanteen, kept the four Sooloos and Banjer with 
him, and sent the launch back to Blopura. On 
March 1st, with Banjer, the boy, four Sooloos, and 
two Tunbumohas, borrowed from the village, he 
started in the canoe to explore the higher part of the 
river. From six in the morning till about eight in 



A TRIP ON THE KINABATANGAN. 137 

the evening they held their way, with but three stops 
of about half an hour each. As they were able to 
keep alongside the bank, out of the force of the 
stream, and in fact generally found a backwater that 
they were able to take advantage of, they did not 
travel less than forty miles. Mr. Pryer occasionally 
walked alongside the boat on firm dry mud, and found 
that, even in the long reaches, they managed three- 
and-a-quarter to three-and-a-half miles an hour. In 
fact, he was delighted at the change from the heat, 
clatter, dirt, and smoke of the launch. 

« The principal matter of interest seen this daj was aDayak < long 
honse/ which we came on rather to my surprise. They were of the 
Tnngara tribe, and in their ways, manners, and cnstoms seemed maoh 
the same as the well-known Dayaks of Sarawak. The entrance to 
the honse was np a high notched post. Inside was a row of rooms on 
the left hand, with doors opening into the central passage, opposite 
to which, on the right, was a slightly raised platform, running the 
length of the house ; the whole being under one roof, and raised on 
piles several feet from the ground. No one was visible on my first 
entering, but the door nearest to me being ajar, I pushed it, and 
going in found myself in a queer dirty little place, divided into two 
or three compartments. There were two or three women and one 
old man. The women crouched away, cUoging together, half trying 
to hide themselves, while the old man puffed away at a pipe, and 
pretended not to see us. He wore enormous brass earrings which 
weighed down the lobe of his ear, making a hole over an inch broad, 
and round his waist was a girdle of brass wire, to which, at back and 
front, was attached a small piece of dirty T cloth, which was all he 
wore by way of clothing. The girls wore similar earrings and girdles, 
as well as rolls of brass wire round the arm, so as to resemble the 
gauntlet of a long glove. They all seemed to think something 



138 THE NEW CEYLON. 

dreadful was going to happen immediately, bo I spoke to the old 
man in a reassuring tone of Yoice, bat he failed to rise to Malay, or 
even to the most barbarous Sooloo patois, 80 I had to send for one 
of the Tunbumohas, and after a short time and a little tobacco, I 
put the old boy quite at his ease, and detailing quite a little list of 
grievances which I promised him should be inquired into. He was 
the only male in the house, the rest being away at work." 

This was the only house they saw all the day. At 
night they hauled the canoe on the beach. The men 
made a £re, cooked their fish^ made their tea^ and 
after their meal stretched themselves out on the hard 
stones of the beach^ arched a kadjan mat over their 
heads, by way of a tent, and went to sleep. 

" These open-air bivouacs are very enjoyable (when it doesn't rain) . 
The ruddy light of the fire ; the rapid river ; the dark background of 
trees ; the sense of freedom ; the lazy attitude of the men, who seem 
to know they have earned a rest and a meal ; and the general wildness 
of the whole proceeding, have a charm which only those who have 
experienced it can understand. As for myself, I slept in the open 
canoe under a kadjan like the rest. I here take the opportunity of 
mentioning the absence of mosquitoes, and other insect pests, which 
under similar circumstances are usually such a trial to travellers in 
the tropics. These appear to be rare in this part of Borneo." 



On March the 2nd, the little expedition reached 
the junction of the Quamote with the Kinabatangan 
before noon. This is quite an unexplored river, owing 
to its interior being in the hands of a fierce tribe, the 



A TEIP ON THE KINABATANGAN. 139 

TinggalamSy who sometimes make a raid upon the 
Kinabatangan. In the pre-smallpox days, there 
were villages all along the river at this point, but 
what few were left by that fell disease were killed off 
by the Tinggalums^ and the whole district is now quite 
uninhabited. " A fort erected at the junction to hold 
these people in check, and a conciliatory but firm dis- 
position shown towards them, would soon set a thriving 
trading-station on its legs here. The amount of valu- 
able produce, such as rattans, gutta, and camphor, 
that must have accumulated in these richly-endowed 
forests must be very great.'' Owing to the English 
having come to the country, there have been no raids 
out of this river for the last three years. 

The expedition held on, the river winding through 
trackless and untouched forest, with the exception of a 
few old clearings, fast being overgrown, which were 
frequently seen on its edge. Mr. Pryer estimated that 
they had gone close on three hundred miles and had 
only seen three villages, Malape, Seebongan, Ter- 
billiong, and Blut, and the Tungara house — '^ a truly 
pitiable state of affairs,'' as he truly remarks, ^^on 
such a magnificent river." 

At midday they rested and ate. The men chose 
for their cooking fire a secluded spot under an over- 
hanging tree which was in full blossom. Though 
they had not seen a score of butterflies on the trip. 



140 THE NEW CEYLON. 

here gaily-coloured moths flew about in bright showy 

clusters, a dozen together, and among them were 

several splendid ornithopia. Mr. Pryer rarely goes 

out of his way to dwell upon the natural beauties 

of the country, but on this occasion he is eloquent 

in his description of the mid-day resting-place and 

the run along the river for some time afterwards. 

" The three ornithopia which I saw here all at once were largerjthan 
many little snnbirds which were hopping and fluttering about from 
flower to flower, peering into their recesses with their sharp little 
bills for the minute beetles and other insects which take refuge 
there. I know that these birds were of bright and brilliant plumage, 
but they always kept so exactly overhead that I could only see their 
black outlines from below, and they might have been as sober coloured 
as nuns for all I could tell to the contrary. These were about the 
only birds I noticed the whole journey. Perhaps half-a-dozen times, 
large kiogflshers, of a beautiful bright blue, skimmed the surface of 
the river and then perched and looked at us with the utmost indif . 
ference. The croaking of hombills was frequently heard, and once 
or twice the stray * swish swish * of their wings was audible as they 
flew by perhaps nearly a quarter of a mile off. These, with the few 
monkeys already alluded to, were the only features of animal life 
that presented themselves. Everywhere along the bank, the tracks 
of buffaloes, deer, and pigs were so abundant as to form perfect 
roads, but they only come out of the depths of the forest at night. 
The calls of birds, however, are always to be heard. In this part of 
the world birds do not seem to sing, but most of them have some 
call, generally strange and peculiar, but frequently qtiite melodious. 
Amongst others those of doves and pigeons are often heard, espe- 
cially where old clearings are common. The call of the Argus 
pheasant is easily imitated, and if given, is sometimes answered from 
the forest, and I believe on one occasion Banjer would have induced 
one of these fine birds to come quite close to us, if we had had time 
to stay." 



A TRIP ON THE KINABATANGAN. 141 

On this afternoon of the eighth day of the excursion 
the expedition arrived at the first of the real villages 
of the interior. It was pleasantly situated among fruit 
trees, potato and other vegetable patches, and with 
the forest for a background, A recently-cleared 
hill a short distance off showed paddy, a foot high, 
growing all over it, and on all sides were to be seen 
the universal plantain. Underneath the house, in 
a sty, was a pig. The people are Tunbumwah 
Sundyaks, but whether converted to Islam or not 
Mr. Pryer could not learn. If they are, he says, they 
have evidently made a reservation in favour of pork. 
The house at which he visited he describes as ^' dark and 
comf ortless,'' and that may be taken as a description of 
the remainder. He found no betel-nut trees there, no 
cocoa-nuts, no goats, and the chickens were very small. 

" The absence of cocoa-nats particnlarly indicates a disregard as to 
food, which, on examination, I foand to be the case. The Malay 
races of these parts, or of Sooloo, and many up the Philippines seem 
to attach no importance to the taste of food. As long as they get 
the merest something to fill their stomachs, they are satisfied, and as 
each man finishes staffing himself, which is what the process amonnts 
to, he gets up and moves off directly. The * social meal * is evidently 
qnite an unknown idea to them. ABanjermassin Malay I met farther 
up complained bitterly] to me on the subject of food, saying that with 
his rice he then had salt, but nothing whatever else, and that until a 
few days before he had not even had that. In the Philippine Islands 
I was once in the same predicament myself for several weeks. One 
consequence is that the people get swellings, sloughing sores, and 
similar kinds of disease. 



142 THK »BW CBYLOIfl*. 

Daring the whole of the ninth day, March 3rd, the 
expedition passed many villages, houses, and clearings. 
The houses were pretty thick along the banks all the 
way. The people seemed contented and healthy. 
Only one man, however, appeared to possess " a proper 
plantation.^' It was composed of abont two thousand 
sago palms, thirty or forty cocoa-nut and penang trees, 
besides dnrian, buah, nona, and other fruits. The 
owner took a great interest in his garden, and Mr. 
Pryer promised to send him some young mango and 
orange trees, a peculiar absence of which was notice- 
able throughout the Kinabatangan region. 

'' At one place we f onnd two human heads suspended on a pole, in 
front of a house. I had heard that they were there before reaching 
the place, so going ashore, I entered the house, and its owner having 
been pointed out to me, abruptly asked him : Why should I not serve 
him in the same way P Hasah pricked up his ears, gave a fierce cock 
to his head-gear, brought his creese a couple of inches more to the 
front, and I heard him whispering something to Banjer about ' old 
times,' while the delinquent had an absolutely livid streak down 
each side of his face. However, at the intercession of some of the 
village fathers, I consented to reserve the matter for a bichara on 
a future day." 

V. 

The destination of the expedition was Imbok. This 
important village was reached on the tenth day, 
March 4th, and the Besident of Sandakan was 
received with great rejoicing. Questions of local 



A THIP OIT THE SnTABATANGAN. 143 

interest were laid before him in his magisterial 
capacity, for the Company and its authority had been 
well proclaimed and accepted. A curious application 
among others was made from an inferior tribe, who 
*^ wanted a slave to semungup/' Mr. Pryer, it need 
hardly be stated, rejected the demand, and treated the 
natives to some explanations of the white man^s views 
of humanity and civilisation. 

" I mnst say I rather liked the people at this place. The chiefs 
and men were a lithe, actiye, leopardlike lot ; very light brown 
coloar ; wearing their hair abont fifteen inches long, hanging down 
oyer their shonlders, in the same way as I have seen the Sarawak 
Dayaks do ; bnt whereas in their case it has an nnconth effect, here it 
seemea to add a grace to the people. They also had a cheerful 
springy sort of way of setting abont things, that was quite taking. 
Their dresses were very brilliant. The Fangeran himself had on 
green silk trousers and a yellow silk jacket. Among other costumes 
I noticed a red jacket and yellow trousers ; a blue jacket and red 
trousers, and other similarly strikingly^oloured garments, the 
material being chintz. I felt rather overpowered by all this magnifi- 
•cence, and was quite relieved when I saw Banjer come in, garbed in 
a sky.blue jacket and scarlet trousers, a yellow sash with a very big 
•creese in it, and a head handkerchief of many colours with a tag of 
it sticking up over his left ear in a most knowing style, I felt he 
was doing his duty and 'keepiug up on end' in a conscientious 
manner." 

The chief's house at Imbok is situated on a hill. 

\ It commands a birdseye view of the river. The 

I ficene is very picturesque, with its vista of banks 

lined with plantations, houses, and fruit trees, and the 



144 THE NEW CEYLON. 

forest as a continual background. There are a few 
hills, but the country may be described as flat. The 
whole of the opposite horizon to the north is bounded 
by a bold range of mountains some 2500 feet high 
and about eighteen or twenty miles long. These 
mountains, it struck Mr. Pryer, would be just what 
would be required for tea, coffee, or cinchona, and he 
picked out some plateaux at a high elevation as 
capital sites for plantations. When he asked about 
the hills, the people, strange to say, said there were 
tigers there, and that they dare not go to them. By 
tigers, Mr. Pryer believes they mean '^ the small and 
comparatively harmless clouded tiger.*' Of other 
animals there is a profusion in this district. Elephants 
are rather commoner lower down the river, but 
buffaloes, deer, pigs, and rhinoceroses are abundant. 
In the fruit season, the Pangeran says, rhinoceroses 
come quite commonly underneath the fruit trees, par- 
ticularly the durian. There are also bears, but small 
in size. A fair example of them may be seen in the 
Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park. It is a bow- 
legged, comical-looking animal, remarkably insignifi- 
cant when compared with its neighbours from Asia 
and America. Mr. Pryer saw many monkeys, but 
only one orang-outang. Before he could get his rifle 
ready, however, the creature was gone, although at 
one time the Resident was within ten yards of him. 



A TRIP ON THE KTNABATANGAN. 145 

^' What struck me most about him,*' he says, '' was 
that he was almost black instead of the usual red. 
That evening I was told, in a house we came to, that 
a short time before a Soolooman, armed with gun and 
creese, walking in the forest, was suddenly seized by 
one, which tore ofE all his clothes and threw away his 
weapons, but did no further harm to him. He ran 
off as hard as he could, and fainted just as he reached 
his house. The animal to be really feared in these 
parts is the crocodile/' The Resident thinks that 
good sport might be had among the deer. At one 
place where the expedition stopped on the return 
journey, there were three deer calling from the 
opposite side of the river not two hundred yards 
away. A boat floating down the river (with a " fire 
pan'' in it) would be sure to run into favourable 
opportunities for its occupants to use their rifles. 
"Indeed," says Mr. Pryer, **for anyone fond of sport 
or natural history, I cannot imagine a pleasanter or 
more inexpensive trip than floating down the Kina- 
batangan on a 'lanteen,' and stopping at any spot 
required. Provisions, etc. could be sent up by canoe 
previously, and everything got ready with but little 
trouble." 

How long a time will it take, one cannot help 
wondering, for the new territory to be sufficiently 
well known for shooting and fishing parties to be 



146 THE NBW CBTLON. 

familiar in this country of "unknown tongaes" and 
people ? Mr. Pryer himself offers some siiggestiYe 
forecasts of the fatnre of many of the deserted 
villages which he passed in the first days of his 
excursion. Smallpox and other diseases incidental 
to sayage life, as well as hostile incnrsions in the 
olden days, had carried off such of the former inhabi- 
tants of these deserted homes as had not left for 
" fresh woods and pastures new/' Mr. Pryer thinks 
an instructive lesson may be read in this episode of 
Bomean history. The natives who have thus disap- 
peared were, "in some respects, civilised; could read, 
write, and argue; wore well-made clothes of cotton 
and silk. The general level of intelligence amongst 
the Sooloos is at least higher than that of the English 
rustic, and yet they have disappeared so utterly, that 
fifty years hence all traces of them will be entirely 
lost, and their clearings again covered with young 
forest trees. Suppose that in some few years' time, 
as seems likely to be the case, the irrepressible 
Chinese appear on the scene, clear the forest, and 
cultivate the ground : they will know nothing about 
this recently vanished race whose few remnants will 
mix in with the new comers, and the faintest traditions 
of the past wiU be obliterated.'^ 

If the judgment of Eastern travellers and ethno* 



A TSIF ON THE EINABATANaAN. 147 

logical experts is to be depended npon, the oatlook so 
well sketched in these closing sentences is one that 
will be quickly realised nnder a vigorous adminis- 
tratiye^ backed with the capital of a great and 
powerful company. 



L 2 



VI. 
EIGHT AOEOSS BOENEO. 

From Hamda Bay to Sandakan — Incidents and Disooyeriea en rout* 
— Sharks and Grooodiles — ^Bnormons Gutta Trees — Kativel J 
Peculiarities — Tattooing and Head-hnnting — Omens — " Bad 7 
Birds " — ^Relics of Slavery^General Kindness and Hospitality ^* 
of the Natives — Adventures Afloat and Ashore — Song and % 
Dance — Capsized and in Danger— Native Patience nnder Diffi- \6 ^ 
culties — Hungry and Forlorn— Besoued — "All's Well that ^^^ 
Ends Well." *f 



If you look at any map of Borneo, however recent, 
outside the one which accompanies the present work, 
you will the better understand the geographical im- 
portance of the expedition across North Borneo which 
Mr. P. Witti made from May 13th to June 17th, 1881. 
The interest of the trip as a chapter of modem travel 
and an episode of current progress, will similarly be 
best appreciated by the student who has mastered 
such history of the island as our literature possesses, 
or by the traveller who has navigated the China and 
Sooloo Seas. 










KCJDAT HAB 




BIGHT ACBOSS BORNEO. 149 

Mr- Witti left Bongon, Marudu Bay, on the 13th 
of May. A journey of two hours and a half brought 
him to Kalimo, a village which is ''ruled over by 
Sheriff Loya, a woman.'' She received him with a 
brief address of welcome and confidence. '' I do not 
run away from you/' she said, '' as my brother, Sheriff 
Yassin, told me I need not do so." With this she 
pressed the traveller's hand and gave him the friendly 
offering of two eggs. He found that the crocodiles 
hereabouts have a reputation for that peculiar harm- 
lessness which has been mentioned in previous chapters. 
"This reminds me," he says, "how one night we were 
fording a muddy creek near Ambong. The water 
there was beautifully phosphorescent ; all of a sudden 
a crocodile rushed past that made me jump ; but my 
guide, a Bajow, calmly said, ' Don't mind that ; these 
crocodiles never bite you.' The Dusuns, near the 
west coast, are very fond of shark^s flesh. On hearing 
a remark made about the diversities of a shark's living, 
they protestingly asserted that no fish ever eats man; 
only the crocodile does." Mr, Witti takes the pre- 
caution, which he recommends to other travellers, to 
steer clear of both of these creatures, and to be con- 
tent, in strange waters, with a shower-bath on board 
your boat, and when navigating Bornean rivers to 
make your ablutions on the banks. 

During the 15th of May, the region "pronounced 



150 THE NEW CEYLON. 

by a professional planter to be the Ceylon of the 
futare" was passed^ and the next day the village 
of Penenian was requisitioned for fresh water. 
" Penenian is a little community of Mamagun Dusuns. 
They live a quiet existence on the rice and vegetables 
they grow, on the fowls they rear, and never bother 
themselves about indiarubber and the outer world.'' 
Ascending from this place to the south-eastward, the 
traveller went through a heavy timber forest. On the 
road to Toyon the highest level above sea was 2300 ; 
Toy on is situated at 1800 feet. Kina Balu bears from 
here due S.W. In the vicinity of Toyon is Input; 
and this is the Sonzogon country, the source of nearly 
all the gutta that finds its way over to Marudu. 

''When emerging from the thick forest, what a burst of landsoape ! 
How the mountains crowd towards this peninsula I A coffee-planter 
would find it worth while to examine it. He could select his eleva- 
tion up to 8500 feet, and the Bengkoka offers water carriage. The 
forest is partly the same growth as on the range between Tambnnan 
and Fapar. The soil is yerj porous." 

The Marudu SheriSs largely export gutta-percha. 
It is collected and dressed and sold by the Dusuns, 
and carried, by serfs to the sea. The bondage system 
exists here, and under rather hard conditions for the 
slave. In this district the Dusuns call themselves 
Namagun, but by outsiders they are given the name 
Sundaya. They received the Company's representative 



BIGHT ACBOSS BOBNSO. 151 

-with great friendliness. Their old man is bUnd. He 
said to Witti : '' I have never seen a white man^s face, 
and I cannot see yours, bat I am glad to hear you 
talk our tongue/' 

A journey of three days through forest and jungle, 
and by several villages, saw the travellers in the 
country that is watered by the Souzoyon rivulet, an 
affluent to the Bengkoka, and is mostly jungle instead 
of timber forest. Both the gutta creeper and the 
gutta tree flourished abundantly. The latter, a 
Sapotacea, yields the stiff variety known in the 
Singapore market as Gutta kras, or Gutta merah 
(Gutta-percha). Prom the former, representing Rox- 
burgh's " urceola elastica,'' is obtained the Gutta 
lichak, or Gutta susu, the Indiarubber proper. The 
natives extract the milk by a number of circular 
incisions from eight inches to one foot apart. The 
milk of the urceola was snow white, but of little 
consistency at the time. The stem in question was 
one foot in diameter, and but recently tapped. Among 
the Dusuns to the south of Kina Balu a fine is imposed 
for cutting a tree down ; at the Upper Kimanis the 
offender has to pay a buffalo. ^'As gutta collecting 
gradually comes under the practical control of the 
Company's officers, a sort of jungle-conservancy might 
be established with advantage. Thus, the collectors 
ought to be taught the American (Para) method. 



152 THE NEW CETLON. 

Dasans are a tribe open to sensible advice/' In the 
jangle which was explored the next day Mr. Witti 
saw trunks of the gutta-percha tree having a girth 
upwards of six feet, and nearly a hundred feet in 
height. The natives here live chiefly on sweet 
potatoes and water. The returns for their rice and 
gutta they hoard up in the darkest recesses of the 
bush, consisting of brass in every conceivable shape — 
that is the only thing their heart is set on. 

" Moimt Kaidangan of the geographical maps is not known under 
snoh name either here or on the coast. There is a rivulet, Kai- 
dangan, discharging itself to the north of Paitan. Over the position 
Kaidangan we travelled yesterday (May 19th) afternoon. There 
we were 2000 feet above the sea, but the point was not conspicuons 
among its surroundings. At present I am unable to guess 
which mountain-top may first have caught an eye in the offing, of 
importance enough to have been charted as Kaidangan. The 
mountain descried from Tankal (Bongon Siver), in N. 106^ (P) E., 
and called by the Dusans there 'Falin,' corresponds, generaUy 
speaking, to the tract of Falin we find ourselves in now, when, three 
days ago, we were nearing Toyon we had a glimpse of blue water. 
The bearings of an island answered to Teegabu (south from 
Mallawalle)." 

The passage of Nipis Nulu had been described to 
Mr. Witti, by natives met en route, in a very dis- 
couraging light. He found it beset with some 
difficulties, but not of a serious character. 

Nipis Nulu is the top of a cone, of which (through 
consecutive landslips) just enough is left to allow of a 
footpath between two precipices. One of these falls 



BIGHT ACROSS BORNEO. 153 

off perpendicularly to a depth of perhaps 500 feet. 
'^ Of the top the natives assert that, in a strong wind, 
it oscillates, reminding one of the celebrated rocking- 
stones of Cornwall/' Mr. Witti found its height, by 
Boiling Point, to be 2446 feet above the sea. Pailin 
and Waigan are situated at 1230 and 840 feet respec- 
tively. The vegetation is timber forest, but not so 
open as that we passed through of late. Sugar-cane 
attains here an extraordinary thickness. It is grown 
for immediate consumption, 

II. 
In approaching the Sugut (which is mentioned in 
the Diary notes of May 22), the country was found 
to be well watered, the jungle irritatingly dense, and 
the road through it abominable. Of the rivulets 
crossed, and partly traversed, the Longom and 
the Kavilian belong to the Melinzao, which flows 
past the village Tinagas and is received by the 
Sugut on its left shore. The main stream is still 
some distance off, but the district of Tinagas extends 
on both sides of it. Tinagas is visited by the Sooloo 
traders. The inhabitants barter jungle produce of 
every description for salt, cloth, brassware, pottery, 
and miscellaneous articles. At Likabao a small Chinese 
settlement is said to exist. The Chinamen do business 
principally in the rubber line. Likabao can be easily 



J 54 THE NEW CBYLON. 

reacTied by ascending the Sugut. - We, on onr part, 
shall next look to the country between here and 
Mokodao, the eastward point of our route in Novem- 
ber last. Our visit then was reported to these people ; 
and the character we were given as paying for every- 
thing we got serves as an introduction now/^ It is 
one of the encouraging signs of all the explorations 
.-.. -r.r. nompany that, on their second visit, the 
in some cases (f... ^.^^ increaBed favour, and that 
for extensions of the wHx., ^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^.^j^ ^pp^^la 
inhabitants of the immediate vi^^^^ent; while the 
lay before the Company's people g.^ ^^ ^^q ^^y, 
redressed and misunderstandings to be ^^^^^g to be 

^' In the diary of November lasfc, I stated that the tribe&anged. 
of KiDa Balu sarpass those nearer the west coast in a physical. 
And here I notice the splendid heads of hair of the male popni^ 
Their hidr is mostly three feet long, and is worn tied up in a 2^ ' 
behind when at work or on the tramp, bnt when at ease i^ 
looGened. It is a cnrions sight to see a number of men combing ea' 
other's hair, and forming a chain in doing so. But their hair is bT 
no means so thick as to support the theory of an improvement of t] 
Dnstin race by a mixture of Chinese blood. Men and women alikl 
wear the neck spiral, and the former also a closely-fitting spiral 
,^oQiid their biceps. Asa tribe the Tinagus Dusuns are 'Mamagun.' 



i 

kF 



Mr, Witti gives many minute details of geographican 
^j^terest, which, however, it is not necessary to sef 
^^^th in this summary of his trip. ^ 

JJofcween Nolumpis and Kagasingan the country does 



BIGHT ACSOSS BOKKTEO. 155 

not rise to more than 1100 feet. It is mostly covered 
with old forest, and well watered. On the fields 
around Kagasingan the nicotiana strikes the eye 
most. Badly cured, it yields a good second-class 
tobacco. The people of Kagasingan received the expe- 
dition in a friendly way ; and when guides to Kirokot 
were asked for, they came forward, on condition that 
they might be back in time for a wedding that was to 
come off that night ; thus both parties were satisfied. 
They arrived at Lansat on the 26th of May. It is 
situated on the right bank of the Morali River, a 
considerable affluent to the Mokodao-Sugut. The 
rock hereabout is serpentine. Between Mokodao and 
Lansat the country is almost fiat, and on an average 
1000 feet above the sea. ''In the course of an after- 
noon and evening we made close friends of our hosts. 
These people are peaceful, sober, and tattooed. Head- 
hunting has become obsolete among them . The crania * 

* ** Traces of head-hunting in North Borneo are very rare, and they 
ohiefly belong to a past time. The practice still exists in other parts 
of the island, but only in a small way. It is satisfactory to learn 
from Captain Mnndy's notes, in the 'Journals of Bajah Brooke,' 
that, even in the year 1840, the Bomean head-honters of the Sarawak 
country respected the persons of white men and Malays. The 
following interesting * interview' of a Dayak chief of great intelligence 
who spoke Malay fluently, is from the work above mentioned : 

" * Did he know anything of God ? ' (Allah talla.)— •* No/ 

** * Did his tribe believe that anyone lived in the clouds ? ' — * Yes j 
Tupa lived there.* 

" * Who sent thunder, lightning, and rain ? * — * Tupa.' 



156 THE NEW CEYLON. 

collected in former times seem but little honoured, for 
they are kept in baskets, mixed up with all sorts of 
rubbish. Curious, that in sifting the human heads 
I came on the skull of a sun-bear (ursus malayanus).^^ 

** * Do they ever pray to Tapa, or offer sacrifice ? * — * No.* 

"'When a man dies, what do they do with his body ? * — * They 
bum it.' 

« * Where do the dead go to after they are buried P ' — * To 
Sabyan.' 

" * Where is Sabyan ? '— ' Under the earth.' 

" * Where is his father gone ? ' — ' To Sabyan. All the Dayak men 
and women who are dead are nnder the ground in Sabyan.' 

"*How long will they stay at Sabyan?* — 'Don't know.* 

" * When he dies, will he meet his father P ' — * Yes j and his mother 
and all the people.' 

** * Are they happy in Sabyan ? ' — * Yes j very happy.' 

" ' If a man was wicked, would he go to Sabyan ? * — * Yes ; but to 
another place, and he would not be happy.' 

" On being questioned about taking heads, he said : ' They always 
take the heads of their enemies, never of their friends.' 

"'If they met strangers in the jungle, would they take their 
heads ? ' — * Yes, if they were strange Dayaks, but not the heads of 
Malays or white men.' 

" * Could they marry without first having a head ? ' — * They could j 
but if they had a head it was considered honourable, and any young 
woman would then marry them.' 

" ' How many heads had they ? ' — 'A good many old ones, but only 
three new ones.' 

" ' Whose heads were the new ones ? ' — ' Brang heads.* 

" (I was aware that the Brangs had recently been defeated.) Of 
their laws I could make nothing. If a man stole, he had to return 
the goods and pay a fine. 

'"In case of murder in their own tribe, what did they doP' — 'Such 
things never happened I ! ' '* 



EIGHT ACROSS BOENEO. 157 

Nerawang was the next halting-place. There lives 
here an old man who has on the left side of his face 
a fleshy appendage which, on closer inspection, shows 
the rudimentary features of a reverted face, without 
eyes and mouth-opening. This extraordinary growth 
is of the size of a child's head, and is covered with 
skin of the usual colour. At Mangilan — on the next 
day. May 28th, with fresh guides — they found that 
the main level of this district is 1200 feet above the 
sea ; the ground rises to 1600 in two ridges which we 
crossed, and there are a few out-of-the-way cones 
attaining perhaps to 1800. Everywhere are traces of 
the migratory habits of the Dusun tribe : they shift 
their planting-grounds as shepherds their pastures. 
The Morali River at this place is a torrent. It should, 
perhaps, be remarked here that villages in the interior 
are currently spoken of under the name of their head- 
man, if such headman be popular, or if the village 
consists of but one single house. This custom tends 
to create a certain confusion, and one cannot too pre- 
cisely ask for the name of the place proper. It is 
better to apply to the old man himself. Younger 
members of Dusun communities are often ignorant of 
the proper name of their native haunt. 

" From Inowantei we carried off the whole male popalation as 
gnides; that is to saj, three men were handsomely recompensed in 
adyance for taking ns to Tamalan. Dnring a halt, one of their 



158 THE NEW CEYLON. 

spears, stuck in the groand, happened to fall down and to infiiot » 
slight cat on the head of one of onr men. The Dosons, at 
first mortally frightened, composed themselves on our assorance 
that we wonld not hurt them in retnm. The wounded man, a Sooloo y 
was disciplined enough not to run amuck on the spot." 

Daring the few days about this period of the journey 
the native guides wanted to turn back on account of 
^"bad birds." Dusuns are superstitious in a great 
many ways. The bird-omens here refer to their note^ 
and not^ as with the Dayaks and Romans^ to the manner 
of their flight. Each village seems to have particular 
good and bad birds of its own. 

" Early yesterday morning some member of the lark family warbled 
beautifully, when the g^des suddenly stopped. ' What do you think 
of that bird P ' they asked me, who happened that instant to look at 
the compass. 'Well, it is a good one, I am sure.' 'Do you feel 
quite easy in hearing it ? ' they continued asking. ' I do ; and now 
go on.' They obeyed, and I fancied they were persuaded. But on 
nearing the next village on the road, the Dusuns declared they 
would rather give back their fee than walk any further, on 
account of that bird. 'All right, we'll get fresh men in that 
village.' In fact, however, the same men took us as far as we 
wanted. Why? Simply because their 'good bird' made itself 
audible in time. ' On hearing that, we are no longer afraid,' 
they confessed when a hombill over-croaked a whole congress of 
winged singers.*' 

Travelling a little farther on the Linogu River, 
Mr. Witti noticed that nearly all the men of Tamalau are 
tattooed^ including even mere lads. They are marked 



BIGHT ACROSS BORNEO. 159 

on breast^ shoulders^ and arms, the same as the natives 
on the Upper Sugut, But while with the latter 
tattooing distinguishes the hero of an inter-tribal war, 
here at Tamalau it signifies something very different. 
When remarking about these signs of prowess, they at 
once said their custom was different from the people of 
Bundo, Morali, Kagasingan, Lansat, etc. j and then a 
story was told which betrays a horrible side of the 
Dusun character, although the narrators spoke with a 
glee as children might in talking about their sport. 
They laughed good-humouredly at their guests' cross 
questions about slowly extracting blood from their 
victims, or preserving the heads. 



" This * costumbre del paes ' consists in the following : When they 
had been damaged in their plantations and other property by the 
'Suing' they kill every Soolooman they can get hold of. The 
Mahometan chiefs, in order to keep the river open, then nsed ta 
reconcile them by giving the agg^eved commnnity some slave — to 
dispose of ; this is done by tying the slave np and spearing him 
through the thorax, which accomplished, the men in the village each 
take a cut at the quivering body. Whoever does that has a 
right to tattoo himself. They afterwards bury the dead without 
retaining the skull, * for the Sooloo chiefs do not wish them to do 
that.' They assure us they are not the same tribe who are reported 
as catching the blood of such victims in small bamboos on purpose 
to sprinkle it over their fields ; but they are certainly the same people- 
of which the Banao men, pointing to the E.S.E., said, < Don't go 
here; they are very bad.' Evils like that must needs be faced 
before they can be cured. We are now prepared to meet, south of 
Kinabatangan, two-legged man-eaters." 



160 THE NEW CEYLON. 

The cannibal, however, did not turn up. On the 
contrary, the travellers experienced nothing but hos- 
pitable and respectful treatment. Less than half a 
century ago, they could not have journeyed through 
some of the pit villages of England either as safely or 
as comfortably as they can to-day in the wilds of 
Sabah. 

The river shores to the south of Tamalau are in 
places flat and overrun with Lalang grass. There are 
crocodiles hereabout, by which the Dusuns lose dogs, 
pigs, and their worthy selves, which may show 
that the Linogu is between this and the lower grounds 
by no means blocked up by shallows. Its generally 
considerable depth is also indicated by the river's 
name, for '^ Linogu " means a '' deep water ; '' in Bajau 
and Sooloo, '^ Lingkabo.*' All the villages here are 
situated high above the river level : Inowantei, for in- 
stance, 500 feetj Tamalau, 500; Mirawandei, 700. 
For their plantations the people select localities hidden 
from view from the river; and the ascent is as 
precipitous as the descent. Asked why they perched 
so high, they expressed much fear of the Dumpas 
men, a Mahometan community midway, perhaps, 
between this and the sea. 

" From here (Mirawandei) we see Einabala ; its highest top bears 
317^, and in 220° is the Wodan Mountain. The Wodan— the name 
sounds somewhat like northern mythology — answers exactly to the 



SIGHT ACROSS BOBNEO. 161 

xLorthemmost top of the * Backbone Bange/ wbioh is on the maps 
drawn as if pulling up short on the southern shores of the * Lake.' 
I estimate the Wodan at 8000 feet j the same is very likely a centre 
of elevation.'' 

m. 

Having descended to the riverside, the expedition 
bailt rafts. On these they floated down until they 
reached Si Hino's, a Suluman's house. The distance 
is only five miles, the river gentle. Whenever shoals 
occur there are also channels deep enough for small 
craft. Si Hino^s place was on our arrival converted 
into a sick-room. The head of the party came down 
in a delirium of fever. Some of his men who had been 
sick were, however, now getting better. In a short 
time Mr. Witti recovered. One cannot fail to notice, 
in his provisioning of his expeditions, an indifference 
as tp his own requirements and comforts which almost 
amounts to recklessness. An iron constitution and an 
ardent desire to be continually moving especially 
characterise this pioneer of the Company; but, after aU, 
the commissariat is an important function in successful 
exploration. It is not every European who can live as 
the Dusuns do; and it is hardly wise to overtax a 
fine natural physique in competition with such unso- 
phisticated "feeders'* as the Dusun men. 

On the 1st of June, the Linogu was reached, lat. 
5° 38' N., having more than half the distance from 



162 THE NEW CEYLON. 

Danao flowed E.S.E. and then S. A little below 
here (Mangkalabu), Si Hino says, commences the turn 
towards B., as corresponding with the mouth of the 
Labuk marked on the Admiralty chart. Kina Bala, 
throwing off his cloak of clouds, was visible at sunset 
in N.W. i N. There being no track to the Kinaba- 
tangan, they had to descend the -Linogu farther. They 
did so for twenty-one miles, and put up at a single 
house, called Liposu, for the night (June 3rd). '^ On 
what seems to be the lower limit of Sogolitan we 
noticed a queer exhibition of the animosity towards 
Dumpas. There a rope, i.e. rattan, was stretched 
across the river, from which dangled all sOTts of 
friendly mementoes, such as sharpened bamboos, 
wooden choppers, snares, etc." At Liposu, where they 
stayed at night, the family by whom they were enter- 
tained would only take glass beads in exchange for 
their rice. 

The gutta and camphor hunters, when at Koun 
Koun, dig out canoes, which, when not in use, they 
conceal in the forest. " For us, the question resolved 
itself into either doing the same thing or hauling 
canoes across the watershed. We decided on the latter 
course for palpable reasons.^^ Punguh and Buis are 
the last non-Mahometan villages down stream; the 
inhabitants are Tambonuas. Rowing down the river, 
several groups of Dumpas men were seen busy in 



BIGHT ACBOSS BOSNIBO. 163 

manufacturing the gatta of commerce from the 
produce collected in the adjacent forests. To them 
both the varieties are known. Also at Punguh several 
people from Dumpas were met. They speak Sulu 
besides their own idiom. To the S.S.B. of Liposu 
rises the mountain group of Meliao, the highest top of 
which may be some 4000 feet. Both the Mentapok 
and the Meliao are by the western and northern 
Dnsuns believed to be as high or higher than 
Kina Balu. The Mentapok we could see this afteruoon 
again. Its highest peak bears from here N. by W. ^ 
W. ; it is very likely not above 7000 feet. 



IV. 

The arrangements for the purchase of three canoes 
occupied all day on June 5th. An important business 
was also to think of the sick companions. It was 
decided to send ten men down the river^ and to enable 
them to procure a conveyance to Sahdakan. To that 
end they were provided with trade goods and medi- 
cines enough for ten days, and with a Malay letter 
addressed to all the hajis and chiefs of the river and 
country Labuk, requesting that the men should be 
assisted in every way; and in particular asked that 
some craft should take them on to Elopura, where 

Mr. Pryer would defray the expenses. " To-morrow 

M 2 



164 THB NEW CEYLON. 

morning our two parties will separate ; under the cir- 
cumstances it is the best I can do for our invalids. 
The impression I derived from Dumpas men and the 
people here tends to quiet me on the point of safety 
in this river, between here and the sea. Then our 
men take four rifles and one revolver with them, 
besides so many krises. The leading man, Hussein, 
is also plucky enough to ward off any attempt at 
enslavement. The latter point is the only one that 
gave me any occasion for reflection. After what is 
experienced on the west coast, in the vicinity of a 
Crown colony like Labuan, my apprehensions will be 
understood.'^ 

In the district of Pugula Delamasan the natives well 
remembered Mr. Fryer's visit last year, and at one of 
the villages applications were brought before Mr. 
Witti in regard to local affairs which he undertook to 
report to the Resident at Sandakan. The house of the 
headman of Punguh, Pangerapan, turned out to be a 
very clean and airy abode. In the evening a concert 
came off, when a Tambonua song was sung in which 
some of Witti's men took part. The tune was mono- 
tonous, but the performance had a homely touch in it, 
for it consisted in the persons slowly moving in a 
circle around the Damar light. In doing so they held 
each other crosswise by the hands, as if "for the days 
of auld lang syne.'' 



BIOHT ACROSS BOBNEO. 165 

On the 7tli of June the canoes were duly launched. 
During the next day ^' a nasty snag prepared us a 
regular mishap/' The leading canoe passed it, but 
the other two capsized. The tide was strong, the 
depth two fathoms, and the crocodiles — well, they did 
not think of them. As it was, everybody saved him- 
self, and all tried to save their wrecked chattels. The 
actual loss consisted in one basket of beads and 
brassware, one Snider rifle, two krises, one spear, and 
a couple of saucepans. This was not the worst of 
their mishaps. After spending the night ashore, 
the next day they re-embarked below some rapids, 
when behind a sharp turn, the trunk of a tree was all 
but blocking up the river. The current, setting at 
this particular spot not less than six knots an hour, 
threw the leading canoe athwart that mighty obstacle, 
upset it, and keel-hauled canoe and all. 



** The loss sastained is more serious than that of yesterday; nearly 
all the instruments and medicines went to the bottom, to say nothing 
of private property. The other two canoes were some distance 
behind, and remained invisible for a long while. Oar misgivings 
that they shoold have come to grief on a previous snag proved true. 
The longest canoe, very leaky, turned up at lasfc, reporting that they 
had both capsized, and that the smallest craft, a new one though, 
had gone to pieces ; men and stores were all right, and the men 
would dose up with us on foot — ^in any case they would walk on 
towards the village, let it be for two days. I at once despatched the 
longest canoe down stream to try and make the village, pressing on 
as hard as they could, and to return with assistance. They were 



166 THE NEW CEYLON. 

giTen the great part of trade goods, and all the papers; rice 
we retained, the little jet available, leaving them enough for 
one meal. We on our part would wait for our companions behind, 
and then arrange further. Three men thus proceeded in one canoe, 
while four of us waited in the second canoe for the remaining nine 
men. . . • From the morning's start, the rapids, we only covered 
six miles ; the nine men were cast ashore at about half the distance. 
We shall extend our present halt over night. Here we sit shouting 
for our friends and cooking for them. They have but little boiled 
rice in keeping." 

Disaster, not fatal, but serious, scarcely left the 
expedition from this point to the close. 

" Jume 10th» — ^Another day of trial. Towards midnight we awoke 
in our leaf hut — ^swamped. The water had since nightfall risen by 
one-and-a-half &bthom. We retired to a higher level, the water 
followed us. In the morning we had to run the gauntlet in our tiny 
craft ; no bamboo or other buoyant wood available to make it more 
steady. For eleven cable-lengths it went on; at the twelfth we 
were caught by the branch of some tree, which would be, perhaps, 
eighteen feet above a medium level of the river. The struggle for 
the canoe was short; we had to let her go and the rice-basket 
with it. 

** Among my men is now but one Illanun ; two other Illanuns wei« 
among the batch of invalids ordered down the Labuk to Sandakan. 
It is characteristic that, while the Bajaus assist each other and try 
to save our goods, the Illanun lets go everything and makes straight 
for the land. The individual in question and most of us swim like 
sharks ; and yet, could you have seen these plucky Bajaus how 
piously they thanked God for the preservation of their lives, and I 
must in justice add, for that of their master 1 The Koun Koon in 
flood is a wild water. 

" We happened to find ourselves on the left bank, our wigging 
friends were said to be on the right one. Towards sunset we 



RIGHT ACROSS BORNEO. l67 

prepared onr nsnal shelter of leaves and twig^s* Then there was a 
hailing, audible from the river : we responded. In fact, we were 
continually hailing and shouting all day long. We recog^sed the 
voices as belonging to the nine men ; they were on rafts. Two of 
the poor fellows did not object to join ns by swimming a pool and 
climbing up a steep mountainside. In reward we had to disappoint 
them : * Can yon give ns something to eat ? ' they gasped." 

On the next day the head of the expedition went to 
visit the second raft. There were four men on it. 
Three others had preferred to drift on a log, but had 
not been seen since early yesterday. The raft of the 
two men that spent the night with us was smashed. 
After urging the men afloat to make the village, they 
parted company. About two miles farther on, another 
hail from below, and the four other navigators re- 
appeared. They had been wrecked, and now preferred 
to walk. Choppers worked a winding path through 
the jungle; but in wielding them the hands grew 
weaker and weaker. " What a store this forest is of 
everything that makes a tropical dominion valuable 
from the very outset ! But there is in this glorious 
waste of trees absolutely nothing which the Jiomo 
sapiens could feed upon in an emergency. It must be 
understood that we were drenched to our very gun- 
powder.^^ The Bajaus^ bred in the jungle, were at a 
loss, in spite of their many resources against famine. 

« Then I told them we should keep to the river, where we coald 
make rafts of rotten logs that float, the fresh wood being throagh- 



168 THE NEW CEYLON, 

ont heayj as iroD. The men could not stand the continual ' up-hill 
and down-hill ' any longer. ' Yes, master/ they said, * let us cling 
to the river ; it is so much easier to die near the riverside, if we 
have to die at all.' The European, hungry though, but better fed 
than they are, could here laughingly answer : * We certainly have to 
die, but not yet.' In fact, we shortly afterwards reached a spot 
which was a former planting-ground. Among the weeds and scrub 
the Bajaus revived, and so did the undersigned himself : we were as 
good aS' grazing. Then we had a halloo from our three faithful 
companions that had escaped the flood and reached the village in 
safety. They were now in search of us, in a fine canoe, accompanied 
by Orang Eaya Binua, of Parayou. We all embarked, and descended 
to Parayon. It was late at night when we arrived at the Orang 
Kaya's house, which is the one situated farthest up the river." 



The three men reported adrift on a log were still, 
however, missing, and Witti organised a searching- 
party to go after them. But the next day he learnt 
that they had been picked up, and, with the exception 
of one man, little the worse for their privations and 
'^ four days' flirtation with crocodiles.^' Four of the 
party were, nevertheless, unserviceable. Accompanied 
by Sawad, who possessed a knowledge of the native 
languages, he put them into a safe canoe, with pro- 
visions, and sent them on from Sabongan. 



" IBth June, — The diary is being written up on board of the Sandakan 
steam-launch. That came to pass in the following manner : 

** Continuing this morning up-stream, I could see we had arrived at 
that stage when, on a pioneering journey, the men must be allowed 
a few days', say a week's, recreation. We should not need that had 



EIGHT ACROSS BOBNEO. 169 

we tHe freshet of the river with ns instead of against I decided on 
returning to Sabongan in order to give the men a rest. At fonr in 
the afternoon we were jast hnnting for a sapper (hunting sweet 
potatoes), when a steam-lannoh appeared at the lower end of the 
reach. * What launch is that P ' *1 know/ said a Sabongan man, 
'the Goyemor is sending rice to Qoarmote, where he has built a 
house.' 'Indeed, then we shall be able to get soon to Quarmote 
after all.' Mj men : * Yes, master, let us go to Siboku.' The 
launch was soon boarded. I found Datu Eabugatan in charge —the 
same Datu whom I believed to be expecting us at the moath of the 
Siboku. The poor man was all done up with dysentery. He is an 
opium-eater, without being a De Qoincey, I am sorry to say. Hardly 
oould he explain the point of his instructions. There was, however, 
a letter from Mr. Fryer, written on the 11th inst., the day when our 
Linogu invalids had come to Elopura (after having experienced 
friendly treatment throughout the Labuk). Mr. Fryer ordered the 
launch to intercept us. He calculated very well that we should 
emerge at Kuala Lakan, and would think of striking in again at 
Quarmote. His very kind note runs in the main as follows : * I 
hope the steam-launch will pick you up all right. Flease don't think 
of going over to the Siboku this time. I cannot at present send to 
meet you at its mouth. When you come here we will talk over a 
trip for some other time there,' etc. I presume there are political 
considerations that bring our journey across the Company's territory 
to an unexpected end." 

The five men who were sent down stream on June 
14th returned in the launch to the expedition, which 
returned to Elopura, Sandakan, Monday, June 27th, 
1881. 

During this excursion the Company's officer halted 
at something like thirty villages and passed many 
more. Nowhere did he meet with rebuff or obstruc- 



170 THE NEW CEYLON. 

tion. On the contrary, he received kindness and 
assistance; and whenever '^the lords of the Company'^ 
were mentioned by the natives, it was with respect^ 
with liking, and with hope of advantage from the 
government of the white man. 



VII. 
THE PIONEERS AT WORK. 

Jaya and Borneo — " How to manage a Colony " — Statistics of Pro- 
gress — ^Wallace on the Dntoh System — ^The Chinese in relation 
to North Borneo— A Saggestion for the Importation of Labour 
from China — ^Anlnteresting Scheme — Building up a NewTown — 
The Progress of Sandakan — The First Days of Elopnra — Security 
and Confidence. 

L 

Just as Java is full of quaint evidences of a past 
civilisation, Borneo has ample indications of a previous 
era of prosperity. In Java, records of the vanished 
power are found in strange mementoes of brick and 
stone ; but in Borneo the Chinese have only left traces 
of their commercial supremacy in habits and manners 
that have survived them here and there in a mixture 
of the races of men. Five hundred years ago Java 
was populated by a cultured people, who built mag- 
nificent temples and other architectural edifices. '^ It 
is a wonderful example of the power of religious 
ideas in social life,'^ says Wallace, "that in the very 
country where, five hundred years ago, these grand 



172 THE NEW CEYLON. 

works were being yearly executed, the inhabitants 
now. Qnly boild rude houses of bamboo and thatch^ 
and look upon these relics of their forefathers with 
ignorant amazement^ as the undoubted productions of 
giants or demons/' While there are no traces of 
building in Sabah, and no opportunities of classic 
comparison with Java^ it is in the power of the New 
Company to emulate the modern civilisation of Java ; 
and in doing so they will first seek to revive those old 
days of Bornean prosperity of which all ancient 
travellers speak^ and proof of which is continually 
cropping up in the history of current exploration. 

" Java ; or. How to Manage a Colony/' by J. W. B. 
Money, is one of the most interesting disquisitions on 
the science of government which has possibly ever 
been written. Mr. Wallace recommends the work, 
and concurs in its facts and conclusions. He believes 
that the Dutch system, as developed at Java, is the 
very best that can be adopted when a European nation 
conquers or otherwise acquires possession of a country 
inhabited by an industrious but semi-barbarous people. 

" The mode of government now adopted in Java is to retain the 
whole series of native rulers, from the village chief up to princes, 
who, under the name of Regents, are the heads of districts about the 
size of a small English county. With each Regent is placed a Dutch 
Resident, or Assistant Resident, who is considered to be his ' elder 
brother,* and whose ' orders ' take the form of * recommendations,' 
which are, however, implicitly obeyed. Along with each Assistant 



THE PIONBEBS AT WOEK. 173 

Besident is a Controller, a kind of inspector of all the lower natiye 
rulers, who periodically yisits every village in the district, examines 
the proceedings of the native courts, hears complaints ag^nst the 
head-men or other native chiefs, and superintends the Grovemment 
plantations. This brings us to the ' culture system,' which is the 
source of all the wealth the Dutch derive from Java, and is the 
subject of much abuse in this country because it is the reverse of 
* free trade.' To understand its uses and beneficial effects, it is 
necessary first to sketch the common results of free European trade 
with uncivilised peoples. 

" Natives of tropical climates have few wants, and, when these are 
supplied, are disinclined to work for superfluities without some strong 
incitement. With such a people the introduction of any new or 
systematic cultivation is almost impossible, except by the despotic 
orders of chiefs whom they have been accustomed to obey, as 
children obey their parents. The free competition of European 
traders, however, introduces two powerful inducements to exertion. 
Spirits or opium is a temptation too strong for most savages to 
resist, and to obtain these he will sell whatever he has, and will 
work to get more. Another temptation he cannot resist is goods on 
credit. The trader ofEers him gay cloths, knives, gongs, guns, and 
gunpowder, to be paid for by some crop perhaps not yet planted, or 
some product yet in the forest. He has not sufficient forethought to 
take only a modest quantity, and not enough energy to work early 
and late in order to get out of debt ; and the consequence is that he 
accumulates debt upon debt, and often remains for years, or for life, 
a debtor and almost a slave. This is a state of things which occurs 
very largely in every part of the world in which men of a superior 
race freely trade with men of a lower race. It extends trade, no 
doubt, for a time, but it demoralises the native, checks true civilisation, 
and does not lead to any permanent increase in the wealth of the 
country ; so that the European government of such a country must 
be carried on at a loss. 

" The System introduced by the Dutch was to induce the people, 
through their chiefs, to give a portion of their time to the cultivation 
of coffee, sugar, and other valuable products. A fixed rate of wages 
— lowindeed,but about equal to that of all places where European com- 



174 THE NEW CIGYLON* 

petition has not artificially raised it — ^was paid to tbe labourers engaged 
in clearing the groand and forming the plantations under Groyemment 
superintendence. The produce is sold to the Goyemment at a low 
fibced price. Out of the net profits a percentage goes to the chiefs^ 
and the remainder is divided among the workmen. This surplus in 
good years is something considerable. On the whole the people are 
well fed and decently clothed ; and have acquired habits of steady- 
industry and the art of scientific cultivation, which must be of service 
to them in the future. It must be remembered that the Gk>vemmeni; 
expended capital for years before any retm*n was obtained ; and if 
they now derive a large revenue, it is in a way which is far less 
burthensome, and far more beneficial to the people, than any taz 
that could be levied." 

According to Mr. Money, Java was in a miserable 
condition up to 1832. Poverty and crime, dissatis- 
faction among the natives, failing means, and a yearly 
deficit in the national income were features of the 
general situation. A new system was then inaugurated 
which in a quarter of a century raised the revenue 
from 24 millions of florins (£2,000,000 sterling) to 
115 millions of florins (£9,500,000 sterKng), and turned 
the yearly deficit into a yearly net revenue of upwards 
of 45 millions of florins — equal to £3,750,000, out of a 
gross revenue of £9,500,000. The reproductive ex- 
penditure for public works and for developing the 
resources of the country was raised from a mere trifle 
to over 2 millions sterling annually. The imports 
were increased from If to 5 millions sterling, the 
exports from 2 to over 8J millions sterling. The 
population grew from about 6 millions in poverty. 



THE PIONEEES AT WOEK. 175 

paying a reyenae of aboat 2 millions sterling, or 
6s. 8d. per head, to 11 J millions of "the richest 
peasantry in the East," paying a revenue of 9 J millions, 
or 16s. 6d. per head. In other words, in twenty-five 
years the new system '' quadrupled the revenue, paid off 
the debt, changed the yearly deficit to a large yearly 
surplus, trebled the trade, improved the administration, 
diminished crime and litigation, gave peace, security, 
and affluence to the people, combined the interests of 
European and Native, and, more wonderful still, 
nearly doubled an Oriental population, and gave 
contentment with the rule of their foreign conquerors 
to 10 millions of a conquered Mussulman race. The 
only English aim it did not attain was, what the Dutch 
had no wish to secure— the religious and intellectual 
elevation of the native. But those benefits were all 
obtained by moans not only compatible with that 
object, but which have involuntarily operated in that 
direction, and have so far produced a firmer and more 
natural basis for future improvement than is shown by 
any of the results of our educational and missionary 
efforts in India,'' 

These benefits are due to the culture system, 
^'established by General Van den Bosch in 1832, 
acting on the relics of the English rule in Java, 
as modified by the Dutch on their return in 
1816.'' Mr. Wallace, in " The Malay Archipelago," 



176 THE NEW CEYLON. 

gives ns some startling facts and figures up to a 
later date: 

'* It is aniyersaUy admitted that when a coantry increases rapidly in 
population, the people oannot be very greatly oppressed or Tory 
badly governed. The present system of raising a rerenne by the 
caltiyation of coffee and sugar, sold to Gorernment at a fixed price, 
began in 1832. Just before this, in 1826, the i>opulation by census 
was 5,500,000, while at the beginning of the century it was estimated 
at 8,500,000. In 1850, when the cultiyation system had been in 
operation eighteen years, the population by census was oyer 
9,500,000, or an increase of 73 per cent, in twenty .four years. At 
the last census in 1865, it amounted to 14,168,416, an increase of 
very nearly 60 per cent, in fifteen years — a rate which would double 
the population in about twenty-six years. As Java (with Madura) 
contains about 88,500 geographical square miles, this will give an 
average of 868 persons to the square mile, just double that of the 
populous and fertile Bengal Presidency, as given in Thornton's 
' Gazetteer of India,' and fully one-third more than that of Great 
Britain and Ireland at the last census. If, as I believe, this vast 
population is on the whole contented and happy, the Dutch Govern- 
ment should consider weU before abruptly changing a system which 
has led to such great results." 



n. 

I liave ventured to reproduce these illustrations, as 
showing the possibilities that belong to a tropical 
country which has such splendid capabilities as 
North Borneo. It is quite evident that an under- 
taking of the magnitude of the new Company must 
have time to grow and give confidence to the capi- 
talist, the planter, and the emigrant. Much less can 



THE PIONEERS AT WORK. 177 

be expected from the natives than has been got out 
of them, in the way of labour, by the Dutch. The 
Bomeans are far more indolent in every respect than 
the Javanese. The policy of the new rulers of Sabah 
will therefore be to attract Chinese labour and Chinese 
settlers. Mr. Spenser St. John, when H.M.B. Consul- 
General for Borneo, came to the conclusion that 
Chinese labour would be the making of the country.* 

» " The population of the territory of British North Borneo we can 
only guess at, but it is thought there may be 150,000 people, con- 
sisting on the seacoast of Malays, Illanuns, Bajaas, Sulus, and a 
few Chinese. In the interior there are a great many tribes who 
style themselves Muruts, Dusuns, Idaan, Booloodoopies, Mallapees, 
and others. These people seem to be a peaceable and agricultural 
race. The population can, however, be no more depended on fop 
labour than the Malays in the Straits or the Ginghalese in Ceylon. 
In Ceylon all the estate labour is imported from India. We shall 
have to import labour in a similar way into Borneo, and for the 
purpose no doubt the Chinese will offer themselves in thousands as . 
soon as wanted; their fitness for such work as agriculturists, 
gardeners, carpenters, blacksmiths, miners, domestic, and indeed, 
every kind of labour, cannot be gainsaid. Sir W. Medhurst describes 
them as being of a class sober, frugal, peaceful, reliable, hardwork- 
ing, intelligent people, and in all respects superior to all other 
coloured races. It is those qualities that have gained for them pre- 
eminence amongst all other natives in Eastern Asia. In California 
and Australia they are much condemned ; but it must not be over- 
looked that there they come in competition with white men as 
labourers. Moreover, they are subject to such certain bad treat- 
ment that only the worst classes will leave their homes for those 
countries. Let the Chinaman be known to his master personally, 
let that master treat him fairly, and there is no better servant in 
the world. At the same time they must be understood and checked 

N 



178 THE NEW CEYLON. 

In Hs "Life in the Forests of the Far East/' he 
says : 

'< There is bnt one people who can develop the islands of the 
Eastern Archipelago, and they are the Chinese. They are a most 
indnstriooB and saying nation, and yet liberal in their households 
and free in their personal expenses. They are the only people to 
support a European Goyemment, as they are the only Asiatics who 
will pay a good reyenne. In Sarawak there are not above 3000 
Chinese, and yet they pay in indirect taxes more than a quarter of a 
million of Malays and Dayaks pay altogether. There is room within 
the Sarawak territories for half a million of Chinese cultivators with- 
ont in any way inconveniencing the other inhabitants; and these 
Chinese could pay, without feeling the pressure, £2 a-head in indirect 
taxes as those levied on opium, spirits, tobacco, and other articles. 

" I believe, if England were to try the experiment of a Chinese 
colony where they had room to devote themselves to agp:iculture, to 
mining, and to commerce, the effects would be as great in propor- 
tion as those displayed in our Australian Colonies. The Indian 
Isles are not far distant from China, and emigrants from them are 
always ready to leave on the slightest temptation. I have lived so 
many years in the Archipelago that I hope my information may be 
found correct. I certainly expect much from the future of Borneo 
if the present experiment be aided or adopted, as it possesses the 
elements of wealth and prosperity, and can obtain, what is essential 
to success, a numerous and industrious population." 

A traveller and experienced Eastern adminis- 
trator who endorses these views (in a private letter^ 
some points of which I have permission to use),. 

when in large numbers, and their own customs adopted as 
regards making their head men responsible for the maintenance 
of peace and order." — Mr. Alfred Bent, at the Meeting on North 
Borneo, March, 1879. 



THE PIONEERS AT WOEK. 179 

enforces his opinion with the following notes from 
the latest Sarawak revenue returns : 

'* With a popalation of abont 7000 Chinese the farms alone amount 
to 88,000 dollars— nearly 90,000 dollars, or £14,000 sterling a-year. 
In 1874 the farms amounted to 64,500 dollars a year, when steps 
wei'e taken to introduce Chinese to plant gambler and pepper. The 
resnlt has been that, with the immigration of abont 2000 Coolies, the 
farms increased, in 1880, 24,000 dollars, and the whole revenne to 
230,000 dollars a-year (£50,000 sterling a.year), showing an increase 
of 47,000 dollars, or more than £9000 sterling a-year." 

Mr. St. John says every Chinaman is worth £2 a-year 
to the Exchequer. In Sarawak, without any direct tax- 
ation, every adult pays the Government between £3 and 
£4 a-year per head. With little or no capital, Sarawak 
has therefore achieved great results, but it has taken 
many years to accompUsh them. Much more exten- 
sive and important results can be attained in the 
North of Borneo, probably in a few years, provided 
a somewhat similar system of government be adopted, 
backed by capital. 

To accomplish this, the first object of the Company 
should be to organise a Chinese colony. North Borneo 
possesses 20,000 square miles, more than two-thirds 
of which is virgin forest, and a population of about 
100,000, or five to a square mile. Java, on the other 
hand, with an area of 37,000 square miles, about 
double the size of British North Borneo, supports a 

N 2 



180 THE NEW CEYLON. 

popnlation of nearly 18,000,000, yielding a revenue 
of £10,000,000 sterling per annum. 

In Singapore, where there are between 80,000 and 
90,000 Chinamen, the yearly revenue, which is chiefly 
derived from opium and other farms, amounts to 
£200,000 a-year. Now there is ample room in North 
Borneo for 500,000 Chinamen, and it is evidently 
of importance that steps should be taken to induce 
their immigration. 

In a paper read before the Society of Arts, Sir 
Arthur Phayre shows what satisfactory results have 
been achieved by a just administration of the govern- 
ment of British Burmah during the last twenty-five 
years. The population has been doubled, the revenue 
and trade quadrupled, an increased prosperity which 
is mainly due to the cultivation of rice. The climate 
and soil of Borneo are eminently fitted for paddy- 
growing, and there is no reason why rice and sago 
should not become the staple exports of the country. 
Whilst trying experiments with new cultures, the 
main object of the Government should be the employ- 
ment of capital in those cultures which are known 
to succeed in the island — i.e. gambier, pepper, rice, 
maize, and sago. A strong argument in favour of 
these articles, in addition to their adaptability to the 
soil, is, that the Chinese are experts in their cultiva- 
tion. The sago-palm grows to perfection in Borneo, 



THE FIONEEBS AT WOBE. 181 

and its culture gives an enormous profit. These are 
the leading suggestions in my friend's letter, and 
I print them for the interest that belongs to his 
statistics. 

m. 

I have before me the half-yearly report of the 
Eesident at Sandakan, dated June, 1881. It is a 
record of the progress of the Company's new settle- 
ment of Elopura, and as a page out of the history of 
"beginnings" it possesses a special interest. Some 
day, when Elopura is a thriving city, these references 
to its earliest days will be read with curiosity and 
surprise. Just as at this moment Elopura is quite a 
wonderful little place to what it was a year ago, so 
twenty years hence its present size will be that of a 
dwarf to a giant. But as an example of how the new 
English Company is sowing the seed of a new world, 
the formal account of a Besident's stewardship at 
one of the newest stations in North Borneo is worth 
examination. 

" The past six months,'' says the Eesident, " have 
been marked by rapid progress in Elopura, progress 
more rapid than anyone could have been justified in 
predicting even in so short a time as eighteen 
months ago. This improvement denotes not so much 
an advance in Elopura itself, as an increasing pros- 



182 THE NEW CEYLON. 

perity throughout the country inland, Elopura being 
but the index of alEairs generally in this part of 
Sabah." * 

The population is permanently increased with the 
arrival of every steamer. Many of the immigrant^ 
go up-country gutta-hunting. The Chinese are 
coming in I'apidly. The population generally is a 
miscellaneous one — Sooloos, Bugis, Sarawak men, 
Bajaus, Banjermassing and Manilla men, Tidong and 
Booloongan men. An attempt to take the census 
failed, but the inhabitants of Elopura now number 
certainly over 1200. Besides this, the settlers in other 
parts of Sandakan Bay are constantly increasing, over 
sixty-three arriving in one day. 

" I may be pardoned for recalling to mind the time, 
not three years ago/' adds the Resident, "when, 
there being an alarm of pirates at Balhalla, I went 
round the only three villages that existed then, and 
found that, besides my own one or two men, there were 
not even ten male adults in the whole Bay.^' 

The health of the population continues to be ex- 

• " The new town of Elopura is situated conveniently near the 
mouth of the harbour of Sandakan. It appears to be a very thriving 
settlement, being only thirteen months old. There are a good many 
Chinese settlers, and they evince confidence in the new Company's 
Besident by laying out a good deal of money." — " Observations on the 
North Coast of Borneo" by Cormnander 0. Johnstone, of the Elgeria, 
Sesptember 4tthf 1880. 



THE HONBEES AT WORK. 188 

tremely good. There is not a single case of fever of 
local origin since tlie first tree was cut in the clearing, 
and both diarrhoea and dysentery are of very unusual 
occurrence. Invalids continually arrive from the 
Kinabatangan and other rivers, but usually soon 
recover, owing to the combined influence of fresh sea 
breezes, dry airy situation, and good water. 

Nearly all the children in this place have been 
vaccinated, and Mr. Wall, the local doctor, '' has also 
been up the Bay and vaccinated the Bajaus, but not a 
single case of the latter took. At Tuong Leet most 
of the Andy Goroo Malagong's people have been 
successfully vaccinated, and the Seemomal Bajaus as 
well.'^ 

Industries are progressing : at Pulo Buy plank- 
sawing continues uniiiterruptedly. " There are now 
two or three small carpentering establishments besides 
the original Pah Lings of which they are offshoots ; 
there are four or five vegetable-gardens, and a new 
one is just going to be commenced on a more preten- 
tious scale ; several people are rearing chickens solely 
for sale, pigs are being kept, bananas are occasionally 
to be bought, and in various other ways things are 
beginning to get more comfortable. The Bajaus 
having abandoned fishing, fishermen from Labuan 
have had to be introduced.'^ 

There is also a blacksmith, a bakery, a washerman, and 



184 THE NEW CBYLON. 

other small industries^ down to a little brass-foundry, 
where brass Sirih boxes and other things are cast by 
Sooloo workmen. In the industries of the future the 
drying and salting of fish promises to take a prominent 
place. The demand for dried fish to be taken up the 
country by the various gutta, rattan, and camphor- 
collecting parties, is rapidly extending. 

" Trade increases and expands monthly ; there are 
now twenty-five different trading establishments here. 
The most noticeable feature of this half-year's trade 
has been the arrival of over thirty sea-going vessels 
(prahus) from Pulo, Gaya, Seebutu, and other islands, 
and even from Sugh itself^ and a considerable increase 
in business in conseqaence.^' 

During the period in question there has been no 
single crime of any importance. Summons cases for 
debt, disputes over matters of all kinds, quarrels 
between husband and wife, have made up the bulk 
of the usual Court business ; while one or two bank- 
ruptcy and liquidation cases have exercised the judicial 
functions of the B»esident. 

" The close of this half-year leaves matters generally 
in a very satisfactory condition. The Bajaus, who at 
first were inclined to oppose us, are now our friends, and 
ready to aid us with their creeses; and the Sooloos also. 
The Darvel Bay people, who required a man-of-war to 
visit them less than two years ago, are now anxious 



THE PIONEBBS AT WORK. 185 

to submit to us and ask for our flag. Dato Israel, 
wlio has been in doubt about us till quite lately, has 
sbown his goodwill by giving his active assistance 
in one or two matters that required some little time 
and trouble. The chief man of Paitan is acting 
nnappointed as a collector of customs ; and the 
powerful Sheriff of Maludu Bay, quite unsought by 
me, sends down for advice in many matters. The 
Chinese are quite contented, and I have not heard 
a murmur from them since certain trade rules were 
altered to suit their wishes.^' 

Inland the country is "ripe for the Company to 
collect a fair tithe of the produce, and the people 
tip both the Kinabatangan, Labok, and Sugut, are 
anxious, and even clamorous, to have the Elopura 
Administration extended to them.*' Says the Resident, 
reflecting with laudable pride on the work thus accom- 
plished : " It must be confessed this is a great change 
from the past, especially when it is remembered that 
the people dealt with are found to be unruleable 
by other nations; and that the best of them are 
known pirates, and have customs and rules regarding 
marriage, slavery, and other things which are quite 
at variance with our Western ideas, but to have 
combated which would have immediately placed us 
at variance with the bulk of the population; in 
which case our way would not have been so easy 



186 THE NEW CEYLON. 

with regard to the inland taxation, if practicable at 
all, while planting would not have been possible; so 
that a little money which has been spent from time 
to time, in freeing slaves and the like, has 
not been thrown away. As it is, the various con- 
flicting interests of Sulu and Dayak, Bajau and 
Booloodoopy, Chinaman and Malay, trader and artisan, 
fisherman and coolie, have all been consulted, with 
the result that European planters can start planting 
to-morrow with as much security as though in an 
English county instead of in a country which three 
years ago was impassable by small parties owing to 
fear of head-hunters or village feuds, on whose 
coast it required a small fleet to move together to 
keep off the pirates.'' 

IV. 

With the examples of Sarawak and Java at their 
very doors, with soil and climate equal to Ceylon, with 
the resources of a great corporation at their command, 
and with the foundation of their past four years' quiet 
useful work to build upon, the nineteenth-century suc- 
cessor of the East India Company should achieve great 
things. There is more than one Eastern Question, 
and that which is developing rapidly to-day with the 
raising of the flood-gates of Chinese emigration is 



THE PIONBEES AT WORK. 187 

not the least important of the problems, Asiatic and 
Oriental, whicli will have to be solved by future 
statesmen. The '^fragments of two continents,^' 
which are known as the Malay Archipelago, have 
*' an absolute extent of land '' little less than that of 
Western Europe from Hungary to Spain. The Archi- 
pelago itself is over 4000 miles in length from east to 
west, and is about 1300 in breadth from north to 
south. " It includes three islands larger than Great 
Britain ; and in one of them, Borneo, the whole of the 
British Isles might be set down, and would be sur- 
rounded by a sea of forests. New Guinea, though 
less compact in shape, is probably larger than Borneo. 
Sumatra is about equal in extent to Great Britain; 
Java, Luzon, and Celebes, are each about the size of 
Ireland. Eighteen more islands are, on the average, 
as large as Jamaica ; more than a hundred are as large 
as the Isle of Wight; while the isles and islets of 
smaller size are innumerable." It is in these regions 
that eventually the Chinese must find an outlet for 
their labour. The progress of civilisation cannot 
continue to pass by these " islands of the sun '' in the 
coming days ; and when the historian a hundred years 
hence takes up his pen to tell the history of the 
exploration and cultivation of the Archipelago, the 
society of English travellers and merchants who 
supplemented native labour with a systematic endow- 



188 THE NEW CEYLON. 

ment of Chinese industry and ingenuity, will, it is 
hoped, furnish a chapter of important and valuable 
results. 

It is certain that among modern commercial enter- 
prises there is not one which suggests to the specula- 
tive reasoner, as well as to the practical philosopher, 
more interesting possibilities than this mercantile 
annexation of Sabah. If the present volume gives 
sufiBicient data for a proper understanding of the 
newly-created power, and an intelligent sketch of 
the country and its surroundings, the object of the 
compiler will have been achieved. In due course 
other pens will take up the story of the New Company 
and the New Flag. In the meantime the reader who 
desires to increase his literary acquaintance with the 
natural wonders of the islands that dot the blue seas 
of China, Java, and Sooloo, will find ample satisfac- 
tion in the works of Spenser St. John, Brooke, 
Dalrymple, Marryat, Boyle, Earl, Medhurst, Bax, 
Keppel, Crawford, Colomb, Wallace, Mundy, Belcher, 
Tennent, Burbidge, and Bock. 



APPEIfDIX. 



From the '^London Gazette/^ November 8th, 1881. 



FoBOBiGN Office, November 7th, 1881. 

The following Charter has "been granted to the British North Borneo 
Company, upon a petition to Her Majesty in Council, 

Victoria, by the Grace o£ God, of the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland 
Queen, Defender of the Faith. 

To all to whom these presents shall come 
greeting. 

Whereas an humble petition has been presented to 
us in our Council by Alfred Dent, of 11, Old Bond 
Street, in the City of London, merchant ; the British 
North Borneo Provisional Association, Limited; Sir 
Eutherford Alcock, of 14, Great Queen Street, in the 
City of Westminster, Knight Commander of our most 
Honourable Order of the Bath; Eichard Biddulph 
Martyn, of 68, Lombard Street, in the City of London, 
banker, a member of the Commons House of Parlia- 
ment; Eichard Charles Mayne, Companion of our 



190 THE NEW CEYLON. 

most Honourable Order of the Bath, a Eear- Admiral 
in our Navy; and William Henry Macleod Bead, of 
25, Durham Terrace, in the County of Middlesex^ 
merchant. 

And whereas the said petition states (among other 
things) to the effect that, on the 29th day of December, 
1877, the Sultan of Brunei, in the Island of Borneo, 
made and issued to the petitioner, Alfred Dent and 
another, or one of them, three several grants of 
territories, lands, and islands therein mentioned, and 
a commission. 

And whereas the said petition further states that 
by the first of the grants aforesaid the Sultan of 
Brunei granted to the grantees co-jointly, their heirs, 
associates, successors, or assigns, all the territory and 
land belonging to the Sultan on the west coast of 
Borneo, comprising Gaya Bay from Gaya Head to 
Loutut Point, including Sapangar Bay and Gaya Bay, 
and Sapangar Island and Gaya Island, and all the 
other islands within the limits of the harbour and 
within three marine leagues of the coast, likewise 
the province and territory of Pappar, adjoining the 
province of Benoni, and belonging to the Sultan as 
his private property; and in consideration of that 
grant the grantees promised to pay severally and 
co-jointly to the Sultan, his heirs, or successors, the 
sum of four thousand dollars per annum ; and by that 
grant the said territories were from the date thereof 
declared vested in the grantees, their heirs, associates, 
successors, or assigns, for so long as they shall 
choose and desire to hold them; provided however 
that the Sultan should have the right to resume the 



APPENDIX. 191 

control and government of the said territories if the 
above-mentioned annual compensation should not have 
been paid for three successive years. 

And whereas the said petition further states that 
by the second of the grants aforesaid the Sultan of 
Brunei granted to the grantees co-jointly, their heirs, 
associates^ successors, or assigns, all the territories 
belonging to the Sultan from the Sulaman Eiver on 
the north-west coast of Borneo unto the Eiver Paitan 
on the north-east coast of the island, containing 
twenty - one states, together with the island of 
Banguey and all the other islands within three 
marine leagues of the coast, for their own exclusive 
uses and purposes ; and in consideration of that grant 
the grantees promised to pay severally and co-jointly 
to the Sultan, his heirs, or successors, the sum of 
six thousand dollars per annum ; and by that grant 
the said territories were from the date thereof declared 
vested in the grantees, their heirs, associates, suc- 
cessors or assigns for so long as they should choose to 
hold them ; provided however that the Sultan should 
have the right to resume the control and government 
of the said territories if the above-mentioned annual 
compensation should not have been paid for three 
successive years. 

And whereas the said petition further states that 
by the third of the grants aforesaid the Sultan of 
Brunei granted to the grantees, their heirs, associates, 
successors, or assigns, all the following territories 
belonging to the kingdom of Brunei, and comprising 
the states of Paitan, Sugut, Bangaya, Labuk, San- 
dakan, Kinabatangan, Mumiang, and all the tern- 



192 THE NEW CEYLON. 

tories as far as the Sibuco River^ with all the islands 
within three leagues of the coast belonging thereto, 
for their own exclnsive and absolute uses and pur- 
poses ; and in consideration of that grant the grantees 
promised to "pay co-jointly and severally as com- 
pensation the sum of two thousand dollars per annum; 
and from that date the said territories were thereby 
declared vested in the grantees, their heirs, associates, 
successors, and assigns, for so long as they should 
choose or desire to hold them ; provided however that 
the Sultan should have the right to resume the 
control and government of the said territories if the 
above-mentioned annual compensation should not have 
been paid for three successive years. 

And whereas the said petition further states that by 
the commission aforesaid, after reciting to the effect 
that the Sultan of Brunei had seen fit to grant to his 
trusty and well-beloved friends the grantees certain 
portions of the dominions owned by him, comprising 
the entire northern portion of the island of Borneo, 
from the Sulaman river on the west coast of Maluda 
Bay and to the Eiver Paitan, and thence the entire 
eastern coast as far as the Sibuco river, comprising 
the states of Paitan, Sugut, Bangayan, Labuk, San- 
dakan, Kinabatangan, and Mumiang, and other lands 
as far as Sibuco river, furthermore the provinces 
of Kimanis and Benoni, the province of Pappar, and 
the territory of Gaya Bay and Sapangar Bay, with all 
the land and islands belonging thereto, and likewise 
the island of Banguey, for certain considerations 
between them agreed, and that one of the grantees 
therein in that behalf named was the chief and only 



APPENDIX. 193 

authorised representative of his Company in Borneo ; 
it was declared that the Sultan had nominated and 
appointed, and thereby did nominate and appoint the 
same grantee supreme ruler of the above-named ter- 
ritories with the title of Maharajah of Sabah (North 
Borneo) and Bajah of Gaya and Sandakan, with 
power of life and death over the inhabitants, with all 
the absolute rights of property vested in the Sultan 
over the soil of the country, and the right to dispose 
of the same as well as the rights over the productions 
of the country, whether mineral, vegetable, or animal, 
with the rights of making laws, coining money, creat- 
ing an army and navy, levying customs rates on home 
and foreign trade and shipping, and other dues and 
taxes on the inhabitants as to him might seem good 
or expedient, together with all other powers and 
rights usually exercised by and belonging to sovereign 
rulers, and which the Sultan thereby delegated to 
him of his own free will ; and the Sultan called upon 
all foreign nations with whom he had formed friendly 
treaties and alliances, to acknowledge the said 
Maharajah as the Sultan himself in the said terri- 
tories, and to respect his authority therein; and in 
case of the death or retirement from office of the said 
Maharajah, then his duljr-appointed successor in the 
office of supreme ruler and Govemor-in-Chief of the 
Company's territories in Borneo should likewise 
succeed to the office and title of Maharajah of Sabah 
and Eajah of Gaya and Sandakan, and all the powers 
above enumerated be vested in him. 

And whereas the said petition further states that 
on the same day the Pangeran Tumongong (chief 



194 THE NEW CEYLON. 

minister) of Brunei made to the same two persons, 
their heirs, associates, successors, or assigns, a grant of 
the provinces of Kimanis and Benoni, on the north- 
west coast of Borneo, with all the islands belonging 
thereto within three marine leagues of the coast, of 
the said territories belonging to him as his private 
property, to hold for their own exclusive and abso- 
lute uses and purposes ; and, in consideration of that 
grant, the grantees promised to pay as compensation 
to the Pangeran Tumongong, his heirs or successors, 
the sum of three thousand dollars per annum ; and 
the said territories were thereby declared vested in 
the grantees, their heirs, associates, successors, or 
assigns, for so long as they should choose or desire to 
hold them ; and they further promised to protect the 
Pangeran Tumongong with kindness. 

And whereas the said petition further states that 
on the 22nd day of January, 1878, the Sultan of 
Sooloo and the dependencies thereof (in the said 
petition and in this our charter referred to as the 
Sultan of Sooloo), made and issued to the same two 
persons, or one of them, a grant of his rights and 
powers over territories, lands, states, and islands 
therein mentioned, and a commission. 

And whereas the said petition further states that 
by the last-mentioned grant the Sultan of Sooloo, on 
behalf of himself, his heirs, and successors, and with 
the consent and advice of the Datoos in council 
assembled, granted and ceded of his own free and 
sovereign will to the grantees as representatives of a 
British Company co-jointly, their heirs, associates, 
successors, and assigns, for ever, and in perpetuity all 



APPENDIX. 195 

the riglits and powers belonging to the Sultan, over 
all the territories and lands being tributary to him on 
the mainland of the island of Borneo, commencing 
from the Pandassan river on the north-west coast, and 
extending along the whole east coast as far as the 
Sibuco river in the south, and comprising amongst 
others the states of Paitan, Sugut, Bangaya, Labuk, 
Sandakan, Kinabatangan, Mumiang, and all the 
other territories and states to the southward thereof 
bordering on Darvel Bay, and as far as the Sibuco 
river, with all the islands within three marine leagues 
of the coast; and, in consideration of that grant, the 
grantees promised to pay as compensation to the 
Sultan, his heirs or successors, the sum of five thou- 
sand dollars per annum ; and the said territories were 
thereby declared vested in the grantees co-jointly, 
their heirs, associates, successors, or assigns, for as 
long as they should choose or desire to hold them ; 
provided, however, that the rights and privileges 
conferred by that grant should never be transferred 
to any other nation or company of foreign nationality 
without the sanction of our Government first being 
obtained; and, in case any dispute should arise 
between the Sultan, his heirs or successors, and the 
grantee therein in that behalf specified or his 
Company, the matter should be submitted to our 
Consul-General for Borneo; and that grantee on 
behalf of himself and his Company further promised 
to assist the Sultan, his heirs or successors, with his 
best counsel and advice whenever the Sultan might 
stand in need of the same. 

And whereas the said petition further states that by 

o 2 



196 THE KSW CETLON. 

the last-mentioned commission, after reciting to the 
effect that the Snltan of Sooloo had seen fit to grant 
nnto his trusty and well-beloved friends the grantees 
certain portions of the dominions owned by the Sultan^ 
comprising all the lands on the north and east coast of 
the island of Borneo^ from the Pandassan river on the 
north-west to the Sibaco river on the east coast, 
including amongst others the states of Paitan^ 
Sugut, Bangaya, Labuk, Sandakan, Kinabatangan, and 
Mumiang, and all the lands and territories in Darvel 
Bay as far as the Sibuco river^ together with all the 
islands belonging thereto, for certain considerations 
between them agreed, and that one of the grantees 
therein in that behalf named was the chief and only 
authorised representative of his Company in Borneo, it 
was declared that the Sultan of Sooloo had nominated 
and appointed and thereby did nominate and appoint 
the same grantee supreme and independent ruler of 
the above-named territories with the title of Datu 
Bandahara and Bajah of Sandakan, with absolute 
power of life and death over the inhabitants of the 
country, with all the absolute rights of property over 
the soil of the country vested in the Sultan, and the 
right to dispose of the same as well as the rights over 
the productions of the country, whether mineral, 
vegetable, or animal, with the rights of making laws, 
coining money, creating an army and navy, levying 
custom dues on home and foreign trade and shipping, 
and other dues and taxes on the inhabitants as to 
him might seem good or expedient, together with 
all other powers and rights usually exercised by 
and belonging to sovereign rulers, and which the 



APPENDIX. 197 

Saltan thereby delegated to him of his own free and 
sovereign will ; and the Sultan called upon all foreign 
nations with whom he had formed friendly treaties or 
alliances^ and he commanded all the datoos, nobles^ 
governors, chiefs, and people owing allegiance to him 
in the said territories, to receive and acknowledge the 
said Datu Bandahara as supreme ruler over the said 
states, and to obey his commands and respect his 
authority therein as the Sultanas own ; and in case of 
the death or retirement from office of the said Datu 
Bandahara, then his duly-appointed successor in the 
office of supreme ruler and govemor-in-chief of the 
Company's territories in Borneo should likewise, if 
appointed thereto by the Company, succeed to the 
title of Datu Bandahara and Bajah of Sandakan, and 
all the powers above enumerated be vested in him. 

And whereas the said petition further states that all 
the interests and powers of the grantees under the 
several grants and commissions aforesaid came to be 
vested in the petitioner, Alfred Dent. 

And whereas the said petition further states that the 
petitioner, Alfred Dent, and his associates from time to 
time of necessity expended large sums of money and 
made great exertions in and about procuring the grants 
and commissions aforesaid, and putting them into use 
and discharging the obhgations arising thereunder. 

And whereas the said petition further states that 
the petitioner, the British North Borneo Provisional 
Association, Limited, consists of persons who lately 
agreed to join together for the temporary purposes 
of acting as intermediaries between the petitioner 
Alfred Dent, on the one hand, and a company to be 



198 THE NEW CETLOK. 

incorporated (if we slioiild so think fit) by royal 
cliarter^ on the other hand^ and of carrying on nntil 
the grant of snch a charter the management of the 
affairs arising under the grants and commissions afore- 
said^ and who, for convenience of common action and 
for hmitation of liability, have incorporated themselves 
under the general statutes relating to companies, that 
provisional association having for its objects as declared 
by its memorandum of association (among others) the 
following (that is to say) : 

To purchase from Alfred Dent his interest and 
powers in, over, and affecting territories, lands, and 
property in Borneo, and islands lying near thereto, 
including Labuan. 

To acquire by purchase or other lawful means 
other interests and powers in, over, or affecting the 
same territories, lands, and property and interests 
and powers in, over, or affecting other territories, 
lands, and property in the region aforesaid. 

To obtain from the Crown a charter incor- 
porating and regulating a company constituted 
with the like objects as aforesaid, or other objects 
relating to any territories, lands, and property as 
aforesaid. 

To transfer to the company so incorporated any 
interests and powers as aforesaid for the time 
being vested in the Association. 
And whereas the said petition further states that 
all the interests and powers of the petitioner, Alfred 
Dent, under the several grants and commissions afore- 
said, have been transferred to and are now vested in 



APPENDIX. 199 

the petitioner, the British North Borneo Provisional 
Association, Limited. 

And whereas the said petition further states that 
Association will, in accordance with its provisional 
character indicated in its name, and in pursuance of 
the express provisions of its articles of association, be 
voluntarily wound np in manner provided by statute 
as soon as a sale or disposal of its territories, lands, 
and property to a company to be incorporated (if we 
should so think fit) by royal charter has been effected, 
and will, after payment and discharge of its debts and 
liabilities, and after distribution among its members of 
the proceeds of such sale or disposal and of any other 
its assets, be dissolved. 

And whereas the said petition further states that 
the petitioners. Sir Eutherford Alcock, Richard 
Biddulph Martin, Richard Charles Mayne, and William 
Henry Macleod Read, are, with the petitioner, Alfred 
Dent, the directors of that Association. 

And whereas the said petition represents that the 
success of the enterprise in which the petitioners are 
engaged as aforesaid would be greatly advanced if it 
should seem fit to us to incorporate by our royal 
charter a company to carry on that enterprise. 

And whereas the said petition further represents 
that such a chartered company would render to our 
dominions services of much value, and would promote 
the commercial prosperity of many of our subjects. 

And whereas the said petition further represents 
that the petitioners are in a position to raise the 
capital requisite for the proper and effective conduct 



200 THE NEW CEYLON. 

of the enterprise aforesaid, and they thereby under- 
take to do so on obtaining the grant of such a 
charter. 

And whereas by the said petition the petitioners 
therefore most humbly pray that we will be graciously 
pleased to grant our royal charter for incorporating a 
company to carry on the enterprise aforesaid by such 
name and with such powers and privileges and subject 
to such conditions as to us may seem meet. 

Now therefore we, having taken the said petition 
into our royal consideration in our Council, and being 
satisfied that the intentions of the petitioners are 
praiseworthy and deserve encouragement, and that 
the enterprise in the petition described may be pro- 
ductive of much benefit to our dominions and to many 
of our subjects, by our prerogative royal and of our 
especial grace, certain knowledge, and mere motion 
have constituted, erected, and incorporated, and by 
this our charter for us and our heirs and royal 
successors, do constitute, erect, and incorporate into 
one body politic and corporate, by the name of The 
British North Borneo Company, the said Alfred Dent, 
Sir Eutherford Alcock, Richard Biddulph Martin^ 
Richard Charles Mayne, and William Henry Macleod 
Read, and such other persons and such bodies as from 
time to time become and are members of that body, 
with perpetual succession, and a common seal, with 
power to alter or renew the same at discretion, and 
with the further authorities, powers, and privileges 
conferred and subject to the conditions imposed by 
this our charter ; and we do hereby accordingly will, 
ordain, and declare as follows (that is to say) : 



APPENDIX. 201 

Transfer to Company of Oranta and Commissions, 

1. The said British North Borneo Company (in 
this our charter referred to as the Company) is hereby 
authorised and empowered to acquire by purchase or 
other lawful means from the British North Borneo 
Provisional Association, Limited, the full benefit of 
the several grants and commissions aforesaid, or any 
of them, as the same is vested in that Association, 
and all interests and powers of that Association there- 
under, and all interests and powers vested in that 
Association in, over, or affecting the territories, lands, 
and property comprised in those several grants, or in, 
over, or affecting any territories, lands, or property in 
Borneo, or in any island laying near thereto, in- 
cluding Labuan, and to hold, use, enjoy, and exercise 
the same for the purposes and on the terms of this 
our charter. 

Fulfilment by Company of Promises of Grantees. 

2. The Company, as representing the original 
grantees under the several grants aforesaid, shall be 
bound by and shall fulfil the promises of payment and 
other promises therein made, subject to any subsequent 
agreement affecting those promises. 

British character of Company, 

3. The Company shall always be and remain British 
in character and domicile, and shall have its principal 
office in England ; and all the members of its court of 
directors or other governing body and its principal 



202 THE NEW CEYLON. 

representative in Borneo shall always be natural-bom 
British subjects or persons who have been naturalised 
as British subjects by or under an Act of the Parlia- 
ment of our United Kingdom. 

Restriction on Transfer by Company. 

4. The Company shall not have power to transfer, 
wholly or in part, the benefit of the grants and com- 
missions aforesaid, or any of them, except with the 
consent of one of our principal Secretaries of State 
(in this our charter referred to as our Secretary of 
State). 

Diffe^'ences with Sultans. 

5. In case at any time any difference arises between 
the Sultan of Brunei or the Sultan of Sooloo and the 
Company, that difference shall on the part of the 
Company be submitted to the decision of our Secretary 
of State, if he is willing to undertake the decision 
thereof. 

Foreign Powers. 

6. If at any time our Secretary of State thinks fit 
to dissent from or object to any of the dealings of the 
Company with any foreign power, and to make to the 
Company any suggestion founded on that dissent 
or objection, the Company shall act in accordance 
therewith. 

Slavery. 

7. The Company shall to the best of its power 
discourage, and, as far as may be practicable, abolish 
by degrees, any system of domestic servitude existing 



APPENDIX. 203 

among the tribes of the coast or interior of Borneo ; 
and no foreigner, whether European, Chinese, or 
other, shall be allowed to own slaves of any kind in 
the Company's territories. 

Religions of Inhabitants, 

8. The Company as such, or its oflScers as such, 
shall not in any way interfere with the religion of any 
class or tribe of the people of Borneo, or of any of the 
inhabitants thereof. 

Administration of Justice to Inhabitants. 

9. In the administration of justice by the Company 
to the people of Borneo, or to any of the inhabitants 
thereof, careful regard shall always be had to the 
customs and laws of the class or tribe or nation to 
which the parties respectively belong, especially with 
respect to the holding, possession, transfer, and dis- 
position of lands and goods, and testate or intestate 
succession thereto, and marriage, divorce, and legiti- 
macy, and other rights of property and personal rights. 

Treatment of Inhabitants^ generally. 

10. If at any time our Secretary of State thinks fit 
to dissent from or object to any part of the proceed- 
ings or system of the Company relative to the people 
of Borneo, or to any of the inhabitants thereof, in 
respect of slavery or religion, or the administration of 
justice, or other matter, and to make to the Company 
any suggestion founded on that dissent or objection, 
the Company shall act in accordance therewith. 



204 THE OTW CEYLON. 

Jurisdiction over British Subjects and in Mixed Gases. 

11. In case at any time we think fit to make pro- 
vision by order in our Council for the exercise and 
regulation of our extra-territorial jurisdiction and 
authority in Borneo, and to appoint any of the 
Company's officers to discharge judicial or other func- 
tions thereunder in our name, then and so long the 
Company shall provide all court-houses and establish- 
ments necessary or proper in that behalf, and bear 
all expenses of the exercise of the jurisdiction or 
authority which those officers are so appointed to 
exercise. 

Facilities for British National Ships. 

12. The Company shall freely afford all facilities 
requisite for our ships in the harbours of the 
Company. 

Appointment of Company's Principal Representative, 

13. The appointment by the Company of the 
Company's principal representative in Borneo shall 
always be subject to the approval oi our Secretary 
of State. 

Flag. 

14. The Company may hoist and use on its buildings 
and elsewhere in Borneo and on its vessels such dis- 
tinctive flag indicating the British character of the 
Company as our Secretary of State and the Lords 
Commissioners of the Admiralty from time to time 
approve. 



APPENDIX. 205 

General Powers of Company. 

15. The Company is hereby further authorised and 
empowered : 

(i.) To acquire and take by purchase, cession, 
or other lawful means, other interests or powers 
in, over, or affecting the territories, lands, or 
property, comprised in the several grants afore- 
said; or any interests or powers whatever in, 
over, or affecting other territories, lands, or pro- 
perty in the region aforesaid ; and to hold, use, 
enjoy, and exercise the same for the purposes 
and on the terms of this our charter. 

[ii) To improve, develop, clear, plant, and 
cultivate any territories and lands comprised in 
the several grants aforesaid, or otherwise acquired 
under this our charter. 

{Hi.) To make and maintain therein roads, 
harbours, railways, telegraphs, and other public 
and other works, and carry on therein mining 
and other industries. 

(t-y.) To settle any such territories and lands 
as aforesaid, and to aid and promote immigration 
into the same. 

{v.) To grant any lands therein, for terms or 
in perpetuity, absolutely or by way of mortgage 
or otherwise. 

{vi.) To make therein exclusive op other con- 
cessions of mining, forestal, or other rights. 

{vii,) To farm out, for revenue purposes, the 
right to sell, in the Company^s territories, spirits, 
tobacco, opium, salt, or other commodities. 



206 THE NEW CEYLON. 

{via,) To make loans or contribufcions of 
money, or money's worfcli, for promoting any 
of the objects of the Company. 

(ioj.) To acqaire and hold, or charter, or 
otherwise deal with steam-vessels and other 
vessels. 

(aj.) To acquire and hold any personal 
property. 

(xi.) To deal in merchandise, the growth, pro- 
duce, or manufacture of the Company's territories, 
or other merchandise. 

{xii.) To carry on any lawful commerce, trade, 
or dealing whatever, in connection with any of the 
objects of the Company. 

{xiii.) To establish and maintain agencies in 
our colonies and possessions and elsewhere. 

(xiv.) To act as agent in the region afore- 
said for any other company or body, or any 
person. 

{xv.) To sue and be sued by the Company's 
name of incorporation, as well in our courts in 
our United Kingdom, or in our courts in our 
colonies or possessions, or in our courts in foreign 
countries, as elsewhere. 

(xvi.) To take and hold, without licence in 
mortmain or other authority than this our charter, 
messuages and hereditaments in England and in 
any of our colonies or possessions and elsewhere, 
convenient for carrying on the management of 
the afEairs of the Company, and to dispose from 
time to time of any such messuages and heredita- 
ments when not required for that purpose. 



APPENDIX. 207 

(xvii.) To do all lawful things incidental or 
conducive to the exercise or enjoyment of the 
authorities and powers of the Company, in this 
our charter expressed or referred to, or any of 
them. 

Questio7i8 of Title. 

16. If at any time our Secretary of State thinks 
fit to object to the exercise by the Company of any 
authority or power within any part of the territories 
comprised in the several grants aforesaid, or otherwise 
acquired under this our charter, on the ground of 
there being an adverse claim to that part, the Company 
shall defer to that objection. 

Prohibition of Monopoly. 

17. Nothing in this our charter shall be deemed 
to authorise the Company to set up or grant any 
general monopoly of trade; and, subject only to 
customs duties, imposed for revenue purposes, and to 
restrictions or importation similar in character to 
those applicable in our United Kingdom, trade with 
the Company's territories shall be free. 

Deed of Settlement. 

18. Within one year after the date of this our 
charter there shall be executed by the members of the 
Company for the time being a deed of settlement 
providing for — 

(i.) The amount and division of the capital of 
the Company and the calls to be made in respect 
thereof. 



208 THE NEW CEYLON, 

(ii.) The registration of members of the 
Company. 

(m.) The preparation and the circulation 
among the members of annual accounts. 

{iv,) The audit of those accounts by inde- 
pendent auditors. 

(r.) The making of bye-laws. 

(vi.) The making and using of official seals of 
the Company. 

(vii.) The winding-up (in case of need) of the 
Company^s affairs. 

{via.) Any other matters usual or proper to be 
provided for in respect of a chartered company. 

19. The deed of settlement shall before the execu- 
tion thereof be submitted to and approved by the 
Lords of our Council, and a certificate of their approval 
thereof, signed by the Clerk of our Council, shall be 
indorsed on this our charter and on the deed of 
settlement. 

20. The provisions of the deed of settlement may 
be from time to time varied or added to by a supple- 
mentary deed made and executed in such manner and 
subject to such conditions as the deed of settlement 
prescribes. 

And we do further will, ordain, and declare that this 
our charter shall be acknowledged by our governors, 
and our naval and military officers, and our consuls, 
and our other officers, in our colonies and possessions, 
and on the high seas, and elsewhere, and they shall 
severally give full force and effect to this our charter, 
and shall recognise and be in all lawful things aiding 
to the Company and its officers. 



APPENDIX. 



209 



And we do farther will, ordain, and declare that this 
our charter shall be taken, construed, and adjudged in 
the most favourable and beneficial sense for and to the 
best advantage of the Company as well in our courts 
in our United Kingdom, and in our courts in our 
colonies or possessions, and in our courts in foreign 
countries, as elsewhere, notwithstanding that there 
may appear to be in this our charter any non-recital, 
mis-recital, uncertainty, or imperfection. 

And we do lastly will, ordain, and declare that in 
case at any time it is made to appear to us in our 
Council that the Company has failed to comply with 
any material condition by this our charter prescribed, 
it shall be lawful for us, our heirs and successors, 
and we do hereby expressly reserve and take to our- 
selves, our heirs and successors, the right and power, 
by writing under the great seal of our United King- 
dom, to revoke this our charter, without prejudice 
to any power to repeal the same by law belonging to 
us or them, or to any of our courts, ministers, or 
officers, independently of this present declaration and 
reservation. 

In witness whereof we have caused these our letters 
to be made patent. 

Witness ourselves at our Palace at Westminster, 
this 1st day of November, in the forty-fifth 
year of our reign. 

By Her Majesty's Command. 

(L.S.) OARDBW. 



CHABLEB SICKENS AZTD BTAITS, OBTSIAL PALACE PRESS. 

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In Two Vols, 18«. 

TO-DAT 11^ AMEEIOA: 

STUDIES FOB THE OLD WORLD AND THE NEW, 



JOSEPH HATTON, 



AUTHOB OP "tHB ViXLBT OP POPPIES," "QUEBIT OP BOHEMIA," "CLTTIB/* 
ETC. ETC. 



'* A bright aud entertaining work."— Daily TELBaBAPH. 

"Lively, optimistic, personal."— Teuth. 

"Graphic and lively sketches."— Johit Bull. 

" In the essays which comprise this book, Mr. Hatton shows himself a 

bright, genial writer, with a style which is eminently readable 

Those who wish for examples of his treatment of his subject should read 
the chapter on copyright, the pages on English anonymous joumalifim, 
' lABds of Plenty,' and ' Canada and the Union.' . . . . ' Crossing the 
Perry ' and * Home Again ' are the titiee of the two concluding chapters, 
the former of which is a very spirited account of how the Arizcna was 
escorted across the Atlantic by a hurricane. The latter is rather over- 
balanced by being too much devoted to Mr. Booth and the Lyceum 
Theatre; but its early sections strike us as singularly original and 
interesting."— Stakd akd. 

" One of the best, because most impartial, and most correct books 
written by Englishmen on the United States Is Mr. Joseph Hatton's 
• To-Day in America.' He writes of a country which he has visited and 
travelled through, with the unprejudiced spirit of a true cosmopolitan. 
He is a keen and exact observer, and he notes his impressions impartially 

as he feels them In short, Mr. Hatton's book is an intelligent 

study of America wbich Americans themselves may read with both 
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THE MYSTERY OF EDWIN DROOD. With Illustrations 

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Cloth, £1 xs. 

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BARNABY RUDGE : a Tale of the Riots of 'Eighty. With 

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CHRISTMAS BOOKS: Containing— The Christmas Carol; 

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PICKWICK PAPERS 



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MARTIN CHUZZLEWIT 40 

OLD CURIOSITY SHOP & REPRINTED PIECES 36 

BARNABY RUDGE and HARD TIMES 36 

BLEAK HOUSE 40 

LITTLE DORRIT 40 

DOMBEY AND SON 38 

DAVID COPPERFIELD 38 

OUR MUTUAL FRIEND 40 

SKETCHES BY "BOZ" 39 

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CHRISTMAS BOOKS 17 

A TALE OF TWO CITIES 16 

GREAT EXPECTATIONS 8 

PICTURES FROM ITALY & AMERICAN NOTES 8 

UNCOMMERCIAL TRAVELLER 8 

CHILD'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND 8 

EDWIN DROOD and MISCELLANIES 13 

CHRISTMAS STORIES from "Household Words,' 



43 Illustms., 2 vols. 



2 vols. 
2 vols. 
2 vols. 
2 vols. 
2 vols. 
2 vols. 
2 vols. 
2 vols. 

2 vols. 

I vol. 
I vol. 
I vol. 
I voL 
I vol. 
I vol. 
I voL 
I vol. 
I vol. 
I vol. 



* &c. 14 

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NICHOLAS NICKLEBY 

DAVID COPPERFIELD 

BLEAK HOUSE 

LITTLE DORRIT 

OUR MUTUAL FRIEND 

BARNABY RUDGE 

OLD CURIOSITY SHOP 

A CHILD'S HISTORY OF ENGLAND 
EDWIN DROOD and OTHER STORIES ... 
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SKETCHES BY "BOZ" 

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X. d. 


8 Illustrations . 


..40 


8 




.40 


8 




..40 


8 




..40 


8 




..40 


8 




..40 


8 




..40 


8 




..40 


8 




..3 6 


8 




..3 6 


4 




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8 




..36 


8 




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8 




•3 6 


8 




..3 6 


8 




..36 


8 




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8 




.3 6 


8 




..30 


8 




..30 


4 




•30 



22 BOOKS PUBUSHED BY 



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THE ILLUSTRATED LIBRARY EDITIOK. 

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CHRISTMAS CAROL IN PROSE. 

IS. 

CRICKET ON THE HEARTH, is. 
.CHIMES: A GOBLIN STORY, is. 



STORY OF LITTLE DOMBEY. 15. 
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THE HOLLY-TREE INN, and 

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NICHOLAS NICKLEBY. 2 vols. 
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OUR MUTUAL FRIEND. 2 vols. 
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CHILD'S HISTORY OF ENG- 
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EDWIN DROOD AND MISCEL- 

LANIES. 

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WEITBRICHTS OUTLINES OF ORNAMENT, reproduced by Herman, 
Z2 Plates, mounted back and front, 8s. 6d. ; unmounted, as. 

MORGHEN'S OUTLINES OF THE HUMAN FIGURE reproduced by Herman, 
ao Plates, mounted back and front, 15s. ; unmounted, 3s. 4d. 

ONE SET OF FOUR PLATES, Outlines of Tarsia, from Gruner, mounted, 3s. 6d. 
unmounted, yd. 

ALBERTOLLI'S FOLIAGE, one set pf Four Plates, mounted, 3s. 6d.; unmounted, sd. 

OUTLINE OF TRAJAN FRIEZE, mounted, xs. 

WALLIS'S DRAWING-BOOK, mounted, 8s., unmounted, 3s. 6d. 

OUTLINE DRAWINGS OF FLOWERS, Eight. Sheets, mounted, 3s. 6d. ; 
unmounted, 8d. 

COPIES FOR SHADED DRAWING: 

COURSE OF DESIGN. By Ch. Bargue (French), 20 Selected Sheets, zz at as. 
and 9 at 3s. each. £q. 98. 

ARCHITECTURAL STUDIES. By J. B. Tripon. zo Plates, ;^x. 
MECHANICAL STUDIES. By J. B. Tripon. zss. per dozen. 
FOLIATED SCROLL FROM THE VATICAN, unmounted, sd.; mounted, xs. 3d. 
TWELVE HEADS after Holbein, selected from his Drawings in Her Majesty'g 
Collection at Windsor. Reproduced in Autotype. Half imperial, £1 x6s. 

LESSONS IN SEPIA, 9s. per doren. or is. each. 

COLOURED EXAMPLES: 

A SMALL DIAGRAM OF COLOUR, mounted, xs. 6d. ; unmounted, 9d. 
TWO PLATES OF ELEMENTARY DESIGN, unmounted, zs. ; mounted, 3s. gd 
CAMELLIA, mounted, 3s. pd. ; unmounted, as. gd. 
COTMAN'S PENCIL LANDSCAPES (set of 9), mounted, r^, 

SEPIA DRAWINGS (set of 5). mounted, £x, 
ALLONGE'S LANDSCAPES IN CHARCOAL (Six>, at 4s. each, or the set, Ix 4.. 



CHAPMAN 6- HALL, LIMITED. 29 



SOLID MODELS, &c. : 

*Box of Modek, £x 4s. 

A Stand with a universal joint, to show the solid models, &c., £z z8s. 
*One Wire Quadrangle, with a circle and cross within it, and one straight wire. One 
solid cube. One Skeleton Wire Cube. One Sphere. One Cope. One Cylinder. 
One Hexagonal Prism. £a ss. 
Skeleton Cube in wood, 3s. 6d. 
x8-inch Skeleton Cube in wood, xss. 
*Thrce objects of form in Pottery : 
Indian Jar, \ 
Celadon Jar, > i8s. 6d. 
Bottle, ) 

*Five selected Vases in Majolica Ware, £a zzs. 
*Three selected Vases in Earthenware, z8s. 
Imperial Deal Frames, glazed, without sunk rings, xos. each. 
*Pavidson's Smaller Solid Models, in Box, £iy containing — 



2 Square Slabs. 
9 Oblong Blocks (steps). 

3 Cubes. 

4 Square Blocks. 



Octs^on Prism. Triangular Prism. 

Cylinder. Pyramid, Equilateral. 

Cone. Pyramid, Isosceles. 

Jointed Cross. Square Block. 

Davidson's Advanced Drawing Models, ;^9.— The following is a brief description 
of the Models : — An Obelisk — composed of a Octagonal Slabs, a6 and 30 inches 
across, and each 3 inches high ; z Cube, Z2 inches edge ; z Monolith (forming 
the body of the obelisk) 3 feet high ; z Psrramid, 6 inches base ; the complete 
object is thizs nearly 5 feet high* A Market Cross— <:omposed of 3 Slabs, 34, z8. 




spond. A Four-legged Stool, with projecting top and cross rails, height Z4 inches. 
A Tub, with handle and projectbg hoops, and the divisions between the staves 
plainly marked. A strong Trestle^ z8 inches high. A Hollow Cylinder, 9 inches 
in diameter, and zs inches long, divided IeiM;thwise. A Hollow Sphere, 9 inches 
in diameter, divided into semi-spheres, one otwhich is again divided into quarters ; 
the semi-sphere, when placed on the cyliilder, gives the form and principles of 
shadmg a dome, whilst one of the quarters placed on half the cylinder forms a 
niche. 

"^Davidson's Apparatus for Teaching Practical Geometry (23 models), £$, 

"^Binn's Models for Illustrating the Elementary Principles of Orthographic Projection as 
applied to Mechanical Drawing, in box, £x zos. 
Miller's Class Drawing Models.— These Models are particularly adapted for teaching 
large classes ; the stand is veiv strong, and the universal joint wiU hold the 
Models in any position. Wood Models : Square Prism, Z2 indbes side, z8 inches 
high ; Hexagonal Prism, Z4 inches side, z8 inches high ; Cube, Z4 inches side 
Cylinder, Z3 inches diameter, x6 inches high; Hexagon Pyramid, Z4 inches 
diameter, 32^ inches side ; Square Pyramid, Z4 inches side, 22^ inches side ; 
Cone, Z3 inches diameter, ss^^ inches side ; Skdeton Cube, Z9 inches solid wood 
T^i inch square ; Intersecting Circles, Z9 inches solid wood 3^ by 1% inches. 
iVire Models : Triangular Pnsm, zj inches side, 23 inches high ; Square Prism, 
Z4 inches side, 20 Inches hi^h ; Hexagonal Prism, z6 inches diameter, 2z inches 
high ; Cylinder, Z4 inches diameter, 2z inches high ; Hexagon Pyramid, x8 inches 
diameter, 24 inches high ; Square Pyramid, xj inches side. 24 inches high ; Cone, 
Z7 inches side, 24 inches high ; Skeleton Cube, z^ inches side; Intersecting Circles, 
Z9 inches side ; Plain Circle, Z9 inches side ; Plam Square, Z9 inches side. Table, 
87 inches by 2x5^ inches. Stand. The set complete, ;^Z4 Z3S. 
Vulcanite Set Square, 5s. 
Large Compasses, with chalk-holder, 5s. 

*Slip, two set squares and T square, 5s. 

*Parkes's Case of InstrumenU, containing 6-inch compasses with psn and pencil leg, 5s. 

*Prize Instrument Case, with 6-inch compasses, pen and pencil 1^, 2 small compMses, 

rn and scale, z8s. 
Compasses, with slufting pen and point, 4s. 6d. 
Small Compass, in case, zs. 

* Models, &c., entered as sets, can only b« supplied in sets. 



BOOKS PUBLISHED BY 



LARGE DIAGRAMS. 



ASTRONOMICAL : 

TWELVE SHEETS. By John Drbw, Ph. Dr., FJELS.A. Prenared for the Com- 
mittee of Coundl on Education. Sheets, jfa 8s4 oa rollers smd varnished, J^ 4s. 



BOTANICAL : 

NINE SHEETS. Illustrating a Practical Method of Teachmg Botany. By Professor 
Hbnslow, F.L.S. ;^2; on rollers and varnished, ;f3 3s. 



Dicotyledon 



Moaoootyledoii» 



1 Angiospermous 

\ Gymnospermous 

{Petaloid . , 
Gil 



SECTION. 

/Thalamiflorat 
J Calycifioral 
' ] Corollifloral 
V. Incomplete 

, f Superior 
(Inferior .. 



a & 3 
4 
5 

7 
S 



BUILDING CONSTRUCTION: 

TEN SHEETS. By William J. GLBNirr, Professor of Dtasring, King's College. 
In sets, f,\ IS. 

LAXTON'S EXAMPLES OF BUILDING CONSTRUCTION IN TWO 
DIVISION^ containing 3a Imperial Plates, jCz. 



BUSBRIDGE'S DRAWINGS OF BUILDING CONSTRUTCTION. 
3S. gd.. Mounted,, 5s. 6d^ 



zz Sheets. 



GEOLOGICAL: 

DIAGRAM OF BRITISH STRATA. By TSL W. Bwstow, E.R.S., F.G.S^ 
A Sheet, 4s.; on roller and varnished. 75^ 6d. 

MECHANICAL: 

DIAGRAMS OF THE MECHANICAL POWERS, AND THEIR APPLI- 
CATIONS IN MACHINERY AND THE ARTS GENERALLY. By 
Dr. John Anderson. 
8 Diagrams, highly coloured on stout paper,. 3 fieeC 6 inches by a feet 6 inches. 
Sheets £x per set ; mounted on rollers, £z» 

DIAGRAMS OF THE STEAM-ENGINE. By Professor Goodkvb and Professor 
SifSULBY. Stout paper, 40 inches by 27 inches, highly coloured. 
Sets of 4z Diagrams (523^ Shcet^, a6 68. ; vaznished and mounted on rollers, 
;^zz zzs. 

MACHINE DETAILS. By Pirofessor Unwih. zff Colonivd Diagrams. Sheets, 
£^ 2S. ; mounted on rollers and varnished, £z Z4S. 

SELECTED EXAMPLES OF MACHINES, OF IRON AND WOOD (French). 
By Stanislas Psttit. 60 Sheets, £% 5s. ; Z3S. per dozen. 

BUSBRIDGE'S DRAWINGS OF MACHINE CONSTRUCTION. 50 Sheets, 
I3S. 6d. Mounted, £x 5s. 

LESSONS IN MECHANICAL DRAWING. By Stanislas Pettit. zs. per 
dozen ; also larger Sheets, more advanced copies, ss. per dozen. 

LESSONS IN ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING. By Stanislas Pkttit. zs. per 
dozen ; also kuger Sheets, more advanced copies, ss. per dozen. 



CHAPMAN &• HALL, LIMITED. 3^ 

PHYSIOLOGICAL ;. 

ELEVEN SHEETS. Illustrating Human Physiology, Life Size and Coloured from 
Nature. Prepared under the duration of John Marshall, F.R.S., F.R.C.S., &c. 
Each Sheet, 12s. 6d. On canvas and rollers, varnished, ;^i is. 

1. THE SKELETON AND LIGAMENTS. 

2. THE MUSCLES, JOINTS, AND ANIMAL MECHANICS. 

3. THE VISCERA IN POSITION.— THE STRUCTURE OF THE LUNGS. 

4. THE ORGANS OF CIRCULATION. 

5. THE LYMPHATICS OR ABSORBENTS. 

6. THE ORGANS OF DIGESTION. 

7. THE BRAIN AND NERVES.-THE ORGANS OF THE^VOICE. 

8. THE ORGANS OF THE SENSES. 

9. THE ORGANS OF THE SENSES. 

xo. THE MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE OF THE TEXTURES AND ORGANS. 
XI. THE MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE OF THE TEXTURES AND ORGANS. 



HUMAN BODY, LIFE SIZE. By John Marshall, F.R.S., F.R.C.S. Each 
Sheet, I2S. 6d. ; on canvas and rollers, varnished, £x is. Explanatory Key, is. 



X. THE SKELETON, Front View. 

2. THE MUSCLES, Front View. 

3. THE SKELETON, Back View. 

4. THE MUSCLES, Back View. 

ZOOLOGICAL: 



5. THE SKELETON, Side View. 

6. THE MUSCLES, Side View. 

7. THE FEMALE SKELETON, 

Front View. 



TEN SHEETS. Illustrating the Dassification of Animals. BylRoBBRT Pattbxson.^ 
£i ; on canvas and rollers, varnished, £2 xos. 
The same, reduced in size on Royal paper, in 9 Sheets, imcolonred, X2s. 



3« 



CHAPMAN «5- HALL, LIMITED. 



THE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW 

Kdlted by JOHN MORLKY. 

Tj^HE FORTNIGHTLY REVIEW is published on the ist of 
every month (the issue on the 15th being suspended), and a Volume is 
completed every Six Months. 

The following are among the Contributors ;— 



SIR RUTHERFORD ALCOCK. 
MATHEW ARNOLD. 
PROFESSOR BAIN. 
PROFESSOR BEESLY. 
DR. BRIDGES. 

HON. GEORGE C BRODRICK 
SIR GEORGE CAMPBELL, M.P. 
J. CHAMBERLAIN, M.P. 
PROFESSOR SIDNEY COLVIN. 
MONTAGUE COOKSON, Q.C. 
L. H. COURTNEY, M.P. 
G. H. DARWIN. 
F. W. FARRAR. 
PROFESSOR FAWCETT, M.P. 
EDWARD A. FREEMAN. 
MRS. GARRET-ANDERSON. 
M. E. GRANT DUFF, M.P. 
THOMAS HARE. 
F. HARRISON. 
LORD HOUGHTON. 
PROFESSOR HUXLEY. 
PROFESSOR JEVONS. 
]feMILE DE LAVELEYE. 
T. E. CLIFFE LESLIE. 
RIGHT HON. R. LOWE, M.P. 
SIR JOHN LUBBOCK, M.P. 



LORD LYTTON. 
SIR H. S. MAINE. 
DR. MAUDSLEY. 
PROFESSOR MAX MULLER. 
PROFESSOR HENRY MORLEY. 
G. OSBORNE MORGAN, Q.C, M.P. 
WILLIAM MORRIS. 
F. W. NEWMAN. 
W. G. PALGRAVE. 
WALTER H. PATER. 
RT. HON. LYON PLAYFAIR, M.P. 
DANTE GABRIEL ROSSETTI. 
HERBERT SPENCER. 
HON. E. L. STANLEY. 
SIR J. FITZJAMES STEPHEN, Q.C 
LESLIE STEPHEN. 
J. HUTCHISON STIRLING. 
A. C. SWINBURNE. 
DR. VON SYBEL. 
J. A. SYMONDS. 
W. T. THORNTON. 
HON. LIONEL A. TOLLEMACHE. 
ANTHONY TROLLOPE. 
PROFESSOR TYNDALL. 
THE EDITOR. 
&C. &c, &C. 



The Fortnightly Review is published at 2s, 6d, 



CHAPMAN & HALL, LIMITED, 11, HENRIETTA STREET, 
COVENT GARDEN, W.C. 

) AMD BVANS,] (CRYSTAL PALACB PRBSS. 



IAFMAjN i 
-'^ DICKBMB A 



NOV 2 1 1929